Sociology Index

ACCULTURATION

The definition of acculturation is the transfer of values and customs from one group to another. Cultural modification of an individual or groups as a result of long term contact with the people of an alien culture is known as Acculturation. Enculturation is the process by which people acquire values and norms appropriate or necessary in an alien culture. Acculturation is the adoption of or adaptation to an alien culture. Acculturation is a process of cultural transformation initiated by contacts between different cultures. Acculturation takes place as societies experience the transforming impact of international cultural contact.

Global trend towards modern economic organization and developed market economies has been accompanied by a process of acculturation. Individuals experience acculturation when their social roles and socialization are shaped by norms and values which are foreign to their native culture. Educational and occupational experiences are the primary agents of the individual's acculturation process. Some sociologists use the term acculturation to refer simply to the process of learning and absorbing a culture, making it synonymous with socialization, but enculturation is a more appropriate word for that meaning.

Latinx Immigrants: Transcending Acculturation and Xenophobia by Patricia Arredondo uses a psychohistorical approach using the words of immigrants at different processes and stages of acculturation and acceptance.

Suicide Ideation and Acculturation among Low Socioeconomic Status Mexican American Adolescents 
Katherine M. Rasmussen, Charles Negy, Ralph Carlson, JoAnn Mitchell Burns.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether Mexican American adolescents' suicide ideation could be predicted from their acculturation levels. Although adolescents' acculturation levels did not correlate independently with suicide ideation scores, acculturation did significantly predict suicide ideation when combined with depressive symptoms and low self-esteem.

Acculturation and smoking behavior in Asian-American populations 
Grace X. Ma, Yin Tan, Jamil I Toubbeh, Xuefen Su, Steven E. Shive and Yajia Lan 
Acculturation had a variable effect on smoking behavior. Smoking rates for females were generally lower than those of males regardless of acculturation status; acculturated adult females had a higher smoking rate than the less acculturated.

Acculturation and Psychological Well-Being among Immigrant Adolescents in Finland - A Comparative Study of Adolescents From Different Cultural Backgrounds.

Adapting a Measure of Acculturation for Cross-Cultural Research - Felicitas A. Dela Cruz, DNSc, RN, Azusa Pacific University, Geraldine V. Padilla, Elaine O. Agustin. Describes a systematic and replicable process used in adapting and modifying A Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics for use with Filipino Americans.

Acculturation and the Mental Health of Latina Women in the Women, Infant, and Children Program - Antonia Cordero, Brenda Kurz, University of Connecticut. Program compared five measures of acculturation and mental health status/utilization.

Gang Membership and Acculturation: ARSMA-II and Choloization -
D. A. Lopez, Patricia O'Donnell Brummett, California State University, Northridge.
Choloization, a staple in gang research on Latinos, asserts that gang members are less acculturated than non-gang members. A sample of Latino incarcerated youths from Los Angeles County (N = 370) is used and the veracity of the concept of choloization using the ARSMA-II Acculturation Scale is examined.

Relations of Depression, Acculturation, Socioeconomic Status in a Latino Sample - Israel Cuellar, Robert E. Roberts. Data from 1,271 Latino first-year college students; 89% self-labeled as either Mexican American or Hispanic, 11% as Mexican National. Symptoms of depression were compared for various acculturation levels. The Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (ARSMA-II) was used to assess acculturation characteristics. Variance in depression scores was influenced more by gender and SES than by acculturation or ethnic identity status. Ethnicity and acculturation were not found to lessen or increase risk for depression, and SES associated with ethnicity was found to directly affect depression scores. 

Acculturation, Drinking, and Intimate Partner Violence among Hispanic Couples in the United States: Longitudinal Study - Raul Caetano, Suhasini Ramisetty-Mikler, Christine McGrath, University of Texas School of Public Health.
Examines the 5-year association between acculturation, drinking, and male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence among Hispanic couples. Drinking is associated with acculturation among women. Couples with mixed acculturation level are less at risk for male-to-female partner violence. Acculturation level at Time 1 is not associated with male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence status 5 years later. 

‘Enculturation’, not ‘acculturation’: Conceptualising and assessing identity processes in migrant communities. - Peter Weinreich.
Abstract: Following a critique of Berry's model of ‘acculturation strategies’, the paper considers the relationship between heritage culture and ethnic identity. Analysis of processes of development, maintenance and redefinition of identity in contexts of alternative cultural norms contends with the assumption of conscious choice or strategy towards mainstream and heritage cultures. From the perspective of identity issues, enculturation of cultural elements rather than acculturation is often the more significant process.

Books on Acculturation

J.A. Cobas, H. Balcazar, M.B. Benin, V.M.Keith, and Yinong Chong. "Acculturation and Low Birthweight Infants among Latino Women: A Reanalysis of HHANES Data with Structural Equation Models." American Journal of Public Health 86 (March,1996):394-396

H. Balcazar, G. Peterson, and J.A. Cobas. “Acculturation and Health-related Risk Behaviors Among Mexican American Pregnant Women.” American Journal of Health Behavior (November-December 1996):425-433.

Two Different Worlds: Acculturation Stress and Adaptation among Cuban and Nicaraguan Families - Andres G. Gil, University of Connecticut, William A. Vega, University of California.

G. Peterson, J.A. Cobas, H. Balcazar, and J. Amling. "Acculturation and Risk Behavior among Pregnant Mexican American Females: A Structural Equation Model." Sociological Inquiry 68 (November, 1998):536-556.

Acculturation: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Applied Research (Decade of Behavior) Book by Kevin M. Chun, Pamela Balls Organista, Gerardo Marin (Editors)

The Cambridge Handbook of Acculturation Psychology David L. Sam, John W. Berry. Features contributions from over fifty leading experts in the field. This handbook compiles and systemizes the current state of the art by exploring the broad international scope of acculturation.

Immigrant Youth in Cultural Transition: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation Across National Contexts Book by J.W. Berry, Jean S. Phinney, David L. Sam, Paul Vedder.

Acculturation and Psychological Adaptation - Vanessa Smith Castro. The focus is on the effects of acculturation on self-esteem among adolescents. This book will be of special interest for scholars or students seeking to understand the acculuturation process outside North America and Europe.

Acculturation and Heritage Language Maintenance: Cultural and Educational Experiences of Chinese Americans by Grace Huey-Yuh Lin.