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Collective Behavior - Syllabus

Collective Behavior Books, Abstracts, Bibliography, Journals, Collective Behavior

Social Movements and Collective Behavior Syllabus-

Collective Behavior Syllabus -

Crowds and Collective Action Syllabus - University of Illinois-Urbana Syllabus

Syllabus - Colletive Behaviour - Don Wells Web Page


Colletive Behaviour - University College of the Cariboo Syllabus

Collective Behavior: Crowds, Cults, Crazes, and Movement Syllabus - San Diego State Univ.

Sociology 3250 ~ UGA
Collective Behavior and Social Movements
Professor: Dr. Dawn T. Robinson

Course Overview: This course will introduce you to sociological theories and research about non-routine collective behavior such as panics, riots, crazes, cults, fashions, fads, legends, rumors, protests, disasters, and social movements.
Required Readings: Locher, David A. 2002. Collective Behavior. Prentice Hall.
Tentative Course Schedule
Part One: Gatherings, Crowds, and Collective Behavior
Part Two: Spontaneous Collective Behavior
Part Three: Collective Action and Social Movements

San Diego State University, Syllabus
Collective Behavior: Crowds, Cults, Crazes, and Movements
George R. Kirkpatrick, Department of Sociology
We will be using a comparative/global perspective to study episodes of collective behavior and action that occur during and are constitutive of periods of social change. Examples include crowds, cults, fads, crazes, rumors, panics, riots, social movements, natural disasters, and revolutions.

Course Requirements:
David L. Miller, Introduction to Collective Behavior (Wadsworth, 1985)
R. George Kirkpatrick and Shoon Lio, Course Readings in Collective Behavior (KB Books, 1996)
I. Every Two Weeks
Each student is required to hand in a two to three-page summary of an article on any collective behavior topic (e.g. fads, fashion, riots, revolts, revitalization movements, rumors, moral panics, revolutions, etc.) from a major sociological journal such as Mobilization; American Sociological Review; American Journal of Socio logy; Social Problems; Sociological Perspectives; Symbolic Interaction, etc. It would be easier to buy the Kirkpatrick and Lio reader from KB Books and use the articles we have collected for the course. Articles in the reader are indicated by an asterisk in the schedule of readings. The summary/critiques should be grounded in the theoretical perspectives given
in the textbooks or lectures.
II. Midterm--There will be one 50 question in-class exam testing you on the materials in lecture, the Miller textbook, and selected articles. It will be a multiple choice exam.
III. Group Project Presentation and Research Paper--You will be presenting a report on an episode of collective behavior analyzed with reference to a major theory or perspective within the field of collective behavior (e.g., Smelser's value-added theory, Turner's emergent norm theory, rational choice theory, etc.).

Week 2. What is Collective Behavior?
M Readings: Miller, chapter 1, pp. 1-15
W Choose a topic of collective behavior research and form an affinity group based on it. Topics include collective delusions, scares, panic, mass hysteria, fads, fashions, riots, natural disasters, revolts, rebellions, social movements, reform movements, revitalization movements, cults, etc.

Week 3. History of Social Thought About Collective Behavior
M Readings: Miller, chapter 2, pp. 16-20; 24
Clark McPhail, "Blumer's Theory of Collective Behavior: The Development of a Non-Symbolic Interaction Explanation." Sociological Quarterly 30 (1989).
W You will meet in groups and a particular episode of collective behavior for your group project and research paper.

Week 4. Theories of Collective Behavior
M Readings: Miller, chapter 2, p.20-51

Stephen Ellingson, "Understanding the Dialectic of Discourse and Collective Action: Public Debate and Rioting in Antebellum Cincinnati," American Journal of Sociology, vol 101, no.1 (July 1995): 100-144.

Russell Hardin, "The Back of the Invisible Hand," in Collective Action (Resources for the Future, 1982), 6-37.

Jerry M. Lewis, "A Study of the Kent State Incident Using Smelser's Theory of Collective Behavior," Sociological Inquiry, vol. 42 (1972): 87-96.

Gary T. Marx and James L. Wood, "Strands of Collective Behavior Theory and Research," Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 1 (1975):363-428.

Neil. J. Smelser, "Some Additional Thoughts on Collective Behavior," in Collective Behavior: A Source Book, ed. M.D. Pugh (West, 1980), 7-11.

David A. Snow, Louis A. Zurcher Jr, and Robert Peters, "Victory Celebrations as Theatre: A Dramaturgical Approach to Crowd Behavior," Symbolic Interaction, vol 4, no. 2 (Spring 1981).

Ralph H. Turner, "The Moral Issue in Collective Behavior and Collective Action." Mobilization (1996)1: 1-15

Week 5. Research Methods/The Ethics of Research
M Readings: Miller, chapter 3, pp. 52-72
Barrie Thorne, "Political Activist as Participant Observer: Conflicts of Commitment in a Study of the Draft Resistance Movement of the 1960s," Symbolic Interaction, vol 2, no. 1 (spring 1978): 73-88.

Week 6. Rumors, Communication, and Social Change
M Readings: Miller, chapter 4, pp. 75-97
James Scott, "Voices under Domination: The Arts of Political Disguise." in Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts (Yale University Press 1990): 136-154.
Robert W. Balch and Margaret Gilliam, "Devil Worship in Western Montana: A Case Study in Rumor Construction," in The Satanism Scare, ed. James T. Richardson (Aldine De Gruyter, 1991), 249-263.
Gary Alan Fine, "Redemption Rumors: Mercantile Legends and Corporate Beneficence," Journal of American Folklore, vol. 99 (1986): 208-222.
Gary Alan Fine, "Rumors of Apartheid: The Economic Typification of Contemporary Legends in the New South Africa." Journal of Folklore Research 29 (1992): 53-71.
Niels Kastfelt, "Rumors of Maitatsine: A Note on Political Culture in Northern Nigeria." Journal of Folklore Research 58 (1989): 83-90.
Patricia A. Turner, "Ambiva lent Patrons: The Role of Rumor and Contemporary Legends in African-American Consumer Decisions," Journal of American Folklore, vol. 105 (1992): 424-441.
Jeffrey S. Victor, "The Dynamics of Rumor-Panics about Satanic Cults," in The Satanism Scare, ed.
James T. Richardson (Aldine De Gruyter, 1991).

Week 7. Collective Delusions: Mass Hysteria, Panics, Crazes, Scares, and Urban Legends
M Readings:
Robert Stallings, "Collective Behavior Theory and the Study of Mass Hysteria," Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization, ed. Russell R. Dynes and Kathleen Tierney (University of Delaware Press, 1994).
Robert E. Bartholomew, "The South African Monoplane Hysteria: An Evaluation of the Usefulness of Smelser's Theory of Hysterical Beliefs." Sociological Inquiry, vol 59, no.3 (August 1989): 287-300.
Nachman, Ben-Yahuda, "The European Witch Craze of the 14th to 17th Centuries," American Journal of Sociology, vol 86, no. 1 (1980): 1-31.
Joel Best and Gerald T. Horiuchi, "The Razor Blade in the Apple: The Social Construction of Urban Legends," Social Problems, vol 32, no. 5 (June 1985).
Angela McRobbie and Sarah L. Thornton, "Rethinking `Moral Panic" for Multi-mediated Social Worlds" British Journal of Sociology 46 (1995) 559-574.

Week 8. UFOs and UFO Cults
M Readings: Miller, chapter 6, p. 120-139
Robert W. Balch, "Waiting for the Ships: Disillusionment and the Revitalization of Faith in Bo and Peep's UFO Cult," in The Gods Have Lnaded: New Religions from Other Worlds, ed. James R. Lewis (State Univ. of New York Press, 1995).
Robert Balch and Donald Taylor, "Seekers and Saucers: The Role of the Cultic Milieu in Joining a UFO Cult," in Conversion Careers, ed. James A. Richardson (Sage, 1978).
Diana Tumminia and R. George Kirkpatrick, "Unarius: Emergent Aspects of an American Flying Saucer Group," in The Gods Have Landed: New Religions from Other Worlds, ed. James R. Lewis (State Univ. of New York Press, 1995).

Week 9. Fads and Fashion
M Readings: Miller, chapter 7 pp. 140-155
B.E. Aguirre, E.L. Quarantelli, and Jorge L. Mendoza, "The Collective Behavior of Fads: The Characteristics, Effects, and Career of Streaking," American Sociological Review (August 1988): 569-584.
Deborah Heath, "Fashion, Anti- fashion, and Heteroglossia in Urban Senegal." American Ethnologist 19 (1992): 19-33
Michael Jindra, "Star Trek as a Religious Phenomenon," Sociology of Religion, vol 55, no. 1 (1994): 27-51.
Susan B. Kaiser, Richard Nagasawa, and Sandra S. Hutton, "Fashion, Postmodernity, and Personal Appearance: A Symbolic Interactionist Formulation." Symbolic Interaction 14 (1991): 165-185.
Charles Edgley and Dennis Brissett, "Health Nazis and the Cult of the Perfect Body: Some Polemical Observations." Symbolic Interaction 13(1990): 257-279.
George Simmel, "Fashion," American Journal of Sociology, vol 62, no. 6 (May 1957).

Week 10. Collective Violence: Riots
We'll be watching "The Fire This Time."
M Readings: Miller, Chapter 11 and 12, pp. 215-256
Clark McPhail, "Individual and Collective Behavior within Gatherings, Demonstrations, and Riots." Annual Review of Sociology 9(1983): 579-600.
Amrita Basu, "Why Local Riots are Not Simply Local: Collective Violence and the State in Bijnor, India, 1988-1993," Theory and Society, v. 24 (1995): 35-78.
Mark Colvin, "The 1980 New Mexico Prison Riot," Social Problems, vol 29, no. 5 (June 1982): 449-462.
David Kowalewski, "Ballots and Bullets: Election Riots in the Periphery, 1874-1985." Journal of Development Studies 29(1993): 518-540.
Kathleen J. Tierney, "Property Damage and Violence: A Collective Behavior Analysis," in The Los Angeles Riots: Lessons for the Urban Future, ed. Mark Baldassare (Westview, 1994).
Ralph H. Turner and Samuel J. Surace, "Zoot-Suiters and Mexicans: Symbols in Crowd Behavior," American Journal of Sociology, (December 1971) 1058-1073.
Bert Useem, "Disorganization and the New Mexico Prison riot of 1980," American Sociological Review, vol 50 (October 1985): 677-688.

Week 11. Collective Violence: Revolutions
M Readings:
Harry Eckstein, "Explaining Collective Political Violence," in Regarding Politics: Essays on Political Theory, Stability and Change (Univ. of California Press, 1992).
Jack A. Goldstone, "Ideology, Cultural Frameworks, and the Process of Revolution," Theory and Society, vol 20 (1991): 403-453.
Mansoor Moaddel, "Ideology as Episodic Discourse: the Case of the Iranian Revolution." American Sociological Review 57 (1992): 353-379
Theda Skocpol, "France, Russia, China: Structural Analysis of Social Revolutions," in Revolutions: Theoretical, Comparative, and Historical Studies, ed. Jack A. Goldstone (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986).

Week 12. Nativistic Cults, Millenarian and Revitalization Movements
M Readings: Miller, Chapter 14, pp. 282-306
Michael P. Carroll, "Revitalization Movements and Social Structure," American Sociological Review, vol 40 (June 1975): 389-401.
John S. Galbraith, "Appeals to the Supernatural: African and New Zealand Comparisons with the Ghost Dance," Pacific Historical Review, vol 51, no. 2 (May 1982): 115-133.
John D. Kelly, "History, Structure, and Ritual." Annual Review of Anthropology 19 (1990): 119-50.
J. David Knotternus, "The Melanesian Cargo Cults: A Test of the Value-Added Theory of Collective Behavior," Sociological Inquiry, vol 53 (Fall 1983): 389-403.
Richard Morris and Philip Wander. "Native American Rhetoric: Dancing in the Shadows of the Ghost Dance." Quarterly Journal of Speech 76(1980): 164-191.
Paul B. Roscoe, "The Far Side of Huron: The Management of Melanasian Millenarian Movements." American Ethnologist 15(1988):515-529.

Week 13. Social Movements
Film: Berkeley in the 60's or Chicanos!
M Readings: Miller, Chapter 15, pp. 306-324
Amrita Basu, "Introduction," in The Challenge of Local Feminisms: Women's Movements in Global Perspective, ed. by Amrita Basu (Westview Press, 1995)
Joshua Gamson, "Must Identity Movements Self-destruct?:A Queer Dilemma." Social Problems 42 (1995): 390-407.
J. Craig Jenkins, "Resource Mobilization Theory and the Study of Social Movements." Annual Review of Sociology 9 (1993): 527-553
Valerie Jenness, "Social Movement Growth, Domain Expansion, and Framing Processes: The Gay/Lesbian Movement and Violence against Gays and Lesbians as a Social Problem," Social Problems, vol 42, no. 1 (February 1995).
Bert Klandermans and Dirk Oegema, "Potentials, Networks, Motivations and Barriers: Steps Toward Participation in Social Movements." American Sociological Review 52 (1987): 519-532.
Rebecca Klatch. "Coalition and Conflict Among Women of the New Right." Signs 13 (1988): 671-694.
Steven J. Lilley and Gerald M. Platt, "Correspondents' Images of Martin Luther King Jr.: an Interpretive Theory of Movement Leadership." in Constructing the Social, ed. by Theodore R. Sarbin and John Kitsuse. (Sage, 1994).
Gary T. Marx, "Thoughts on a Neglected Category of Social Movement Participant: The Agent Provocateur and the Informant," American Journal of Sociology, vol 80 (1974): 402-442.
Doug McAdam, "The Biographical Consequences of Activism," American Sociological Review, vol 54, no. 4 (October 1989): 744-760.
Doug McAdam and Dieter Rucht. "The Cross-National Diffusion of Movement Ideas," Annals of the American Academy of Political Science and Social Science 528 (1993): 56-87.
Doug McAdam, Sidney Tarrow, and Charles Tilly, "To Map Contentious Politics." Mobilization 1(1996): 17-33.
John McCarthy and Mayer N. Zald. "Resource Mobilization and Social Movements," American Journal of Sociology 82 (1977): 1212-1242.
Hugh Mehan and John Will, "MEND: A Nurturing Voice in the Nuclear Arms Debate," Social Problems, vol 35, no. 4 (October 1988).

Week 14 Social Movements and Protests
M Reading: Verta Taylor, "The Women's Movement in Abeyance," American Sociological Review 54 (1989): 145-170.

Week 15 Disaster
M Readings: Miller chapter 9, p. 171-213
Norris R. Johnson, "Panic at The Who Concert Stampede: An Empirical Assessment," Social Problems, vol 34 (October 1987): 362-373.
Dennis Wegner and Thomas F. James, "The Convergence of Volunteers in a Consensus Crisis: the case of the 1985 Mexico City Earthquake," in Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization, ed. by Russell R. Dynes and Kathleen Tierney (University of Delaware Press, 1994).

Clark McPhail - Department of Sociology - University of Illinois-Urbana
Required Texts:
McPhail, Clark. 1991. The Myth of the Madding Crowd. NY: Aldine De Gruyter.
McPhail, Clark 1996. Crowds and Collective Action, Selected Readings. Champaign: Notes & Quotes in Johnstown Centre.
Course Requirements and Grading.


week 1
1. Transformation Theories of the Crowd -- 19th & 20th Century European
McPhail, Myth of the Madding Crowd (1991), foreword, prologue, p. xi-xxxx.
2. Transformation Theories of the Crowd -- 20th Century American
McPhail, Myth of the Madding Crowd (1991), Ch 1, p.1-13.
3. Discussion: The Transformation Perspective
McPhail, Myth (1991), Ch 1, p. 13-25.

week 2
1. Predisposition Theories of the Crowd -- 20th Century European & American
McPhail, Myth (1991), Ch 2, p. 25-43.
2. Predisposition Theories of the Crowd -- 20th Century American
McPhail, Myth (1991) Ch 2, p. 43-60.
3. Discussion: The Predisposition Perspective
McPhail, Myth (1991), Ch 3, p. 68-88.

week 3
1. Emergent Norm Theories of the Crowd -- Sherif
McPhail, Myth (1991), Ch 3, p. 68-88.
2. Emergent Norm Theories of the Crowd -- Turner & Killian
McPhail, Myth (1991), Ch 3, p. 89-107.
3. Discussion: The Emergent Norm Perspective

week 4
1. Rational & Bounded Rationality Perspectives -- Berk, H. Simon
McPhail, Myth (1991), Ch 4, p. 109-128.
2. Social Structure, Organization & Purposive Collective Action: Tilly
McPhail, Myth (1991), Ch 4, p. 129-148.
3. Discussion: Rational Actor & Social Structural Perspectives
McPhail, Myth (1991), Ch 5, p. 149-174.

week 5
1. What are the Phenomena to be Explained (PTBE)?
McPhail, Myth (1991), Ch 5, 174-190.
2. Perception Control Theory (PCT) of Individual & Collective Action
McPhail, Myth (1991), Ch 6, p. 191-232 and Epilogue.
3. Discussion: PTBE and the PCT Perspective
McPhail, Myth, (1991), Prologue, p. xix- xxx.

1. Assembling Processes, Elementary Forms of Collective Action, Prosaic and Religious Gatherings
2. Assembling Processes: Periodic and Non-Periodic, McPhail, Clark and David L. Miller. 1973. "The assembling process," American Sociological Review 38: 721-735
3. Assembling Processes: Predisposition Explanations. McPhail, Clark. 1994. "The dark side of purpose: individual and collective violence in riots." Sociological Quarterly 35:16-32.

week 7
1. Assembling Processes: A PCT Explanation
McPhail, Clark, 1994. "The dark side of purpose: individual and collective violence in riots." Sociological Quarterly 35:16-32.
2. Assembling Processes: A Bloc Mobilization Perspective. Bruno, Jerry and Jeff Greenfield. "Learning the ropes: a worm's eye-view of the 1960 [JFK] campaign." from their book The Advance Man. 1971. NY: Bantam.
3. Discussion: Assembling Processes
Gage, Nichola s. "Iran: Making of a Revolution." New York Times Magazine (Dec 17, 1978), p. 118-119. Simon Leyr. Chinese Shadows. 1978. NY: Penguin Books.

week 8
1. Prosaic Gatherings: An Introduction
Whyte, William H. 1980. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Washington: The Conservative Foundation. Ch 1 p. 16-23, Ch 5 p. 54-59, Ch 11 p. 94-101.
2. Prosaic Gatherings: Clusters, Arcs & Rings. McPhail, Clark. 1994. "Social behavior in public places: from clusters to arcs and rings." P. 35-57 in Spencer Cahill and Lyn Lofland, eds., The Community of the Streets. Greenwich, CT:JAI Press.
3. Prosaic Gatherings: Queues Mann, Leon. 1973. "Learning to live with lines." P. 42-61 in John Helmer and Neil A. Eddington, eds., Urbanman: The Psychology of Urban Survival. NY:The Free Press.

week 9
1. Discussion: Prosaic Gatherings
Harrison, Sally. 1984. "Drawing a circle in Washington Square Park." Studies in Visual
Communication 10:68-70, 77-80, 81-82.
2. Religious Gatherings: Periodicity. Zerubavel, Eviatar. 1981. "The Calendar" P. 70-100 in his Hidden Rhythms: Schedules and Calendars in Social Life. Univ. of Chicago Press.
3. Religious Gatherings: The Sociology of God
Collins, Randall. 1982. "The Sociology of God." P. 30-37, 42-47, 58-59 from his Sociological Insight. New York.

week 10
1. Religious Gatherings: The Organization of Epiphanies
Wimberly, Ronald C. et al. 1975. "Conversion in a Billy Graham Crusade: Spontaneous Event or Ritual Performance?" The Sociological Quarterly 16:162-170.
2. Discussion: Religious Gatherings
Rai, Raghu. 1986. "Kumby Mela: Nectar of the Gods." India Today (May 15): 74-84. (Hindu religious rituals on the Ganges)
3. Examination #2 (25% Course Grade)
Sport and Political Gatherings; Dispersal Processes

week 11
1. Sport Gatherings: events, campaigns
Guttman, Allen. 1986. "Greek and Roman Spectators," p. 15-34 in his Sport Spectators. NY: Columbia University Press.
2. Sport Gatherings: fans
Hastorf, Albert, and Hadley Cantril. 1954. "They saw a game." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 49:129-134.
3. Sport Gatherings: organization of collective action
Wottowa, Dawn. 1973. "Block I: Then and Now" Paper submitted for Soc 240, Dept of Sociology, University of Illinois at Urbana, Illinois.

week 12
1. Discussion: sport gatherings
2. Political Gatherings: politics & protest
McAdam, Doug. 1982. "The political process model." P. 36-59 in his Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970. Chicago: U of Chicago Press.
3. Political Gatherings: variation in forms
Tilly, Charles. 1983. "Speaking your mind without elections, surveys or social movements." Public Opinion Quarterly 47:461-478.

week 13
1. Political Gatherings: political impact
Alinsky, Saul. 1972. "Tactics." in his Rules for Radicals. NY: Random House.
2. Political Gatherings: personal impact
Admek, Raymond and Jerry Lewis. 1973. "Social control violence and radicalization: The Kent State Case." Social Forces 51: 342-347.
3. Discussion: political gatherings

week 14
1. Routine Dispersal Processes
Fleegle, Mia. 1978. "The Dispersal Process at Krannert Center's Great Hall: A Photographic Essay and Analysis." Paper submitted to Soc 249, Dept of Sociology, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign.
2. Emergency Dispersal Processes
Johnson, Norris. 1987. "Panic and the breakdown of social order." Sociological.
Johnson, Norris. 1987. "Panic at The Who Concert stampede: an empirical assessment." Social Problems 34:362-373.
3. Coerced Dispersal Processes
Michener, James. 1971. Kent State [May 4 1970]: What Happened and Why. NY: Random House.

week 15
1. Discussion: Dispersing Processes
Please do raise questions, propose variations or alternative paper topics with me during office hours of by email.
1. Systematic Observation Papers: for example:
1.1 Accumulating Size of Gatherings x Time During Assembling Processes
1.2 The Frequency, Size, Gender, Ethnic Composition of Small Groups (withs) in Public Places
1.3 Extent of Participation in Collective Acts Specified in Orders of Worship
1.4 Extent of Participation in Collective Acts in Political Demonstrations
1.5 Diminishing Size of Gatherings x Time During Dispersing Processes
1.6 Propose another variation to me.
2. Non-Participant Observation Papers: for example:
2.1 Individual and Collective Actions in Prosaic Gatherings
2.2 Individual and Collective Actions in Religious Gatherings
2.3 Individual and Collective Actions in Sport Gatherings
2.4 Individual and Collective Actions in Political Gatherings
2.5 Individual and Collective Actions in Pop-Culture Gatherings (e.g. rock concerts, mosh pits)
2.6 Propose another variation to me
3. Participant Observation Papers: Answering "The Stewart Questions" About Your Periodic Gatherings; e.g.
3.1 Fraternity and sorority chapter meetings
3.2 Choir rehearsals
3.3 Political interest groups
3.4 Religious interest groups
3.5 ROTC drills and ceremonies
3.6 Propose another variation to me

Linda Deutschmann, Department of Social and Environmental Studies
University College of the Cariboo

This course is an introduction to the analysis of crowd and mass action. Forms of collective behaviour, such as riots, fads, and emergent social movements will be described and analyzed. We will discuss multidisciplinary approaches to understanding the emergence, maintenance and social control of:
1. Panics, riots, demonstrations and other crowd scenes.
2. Public opinion and other mass phenomena (including modern terrorism).
3. Social Fads, follies, and other "contagion" phenomena.
4. Emergent phases of cults and social movements.
Students who complete this course should be able to recognize a variety of explanations for collective behaviour, and should know why some of them are extensively supported by policy makers. They should be able to recognize and work with the current theories in the field. The knowledge is useful in many ways, since collective behaviour is a potential reality in almost every social situation.
Miller, David L. 1985 Introduction to Collective Behavior Harcourt Brace.
Deutschmann, L. 1991 Triumph of the Will Longwood Academic.

Adjustments to this plan may be necessary.
PART I Introduction
- Examples of collective behaviour, historical and current
- Definitions of the Field, historical and analytical
- Problems of observation, data collection and interpretation.
PART II Theories of Collective Behaviour
- Theories: origins, support, controversies
Readings for Test I (based on Parts I and II)
Miller Chapter 1,2 and 3.
Deutschmann Chapter 3.
Test One (October 2)
PART III Crowd Scenes
- Crowds: the generic forms of collective behaviour
- From food riots and charivari to petitions and mass demonstrations
- Emergence, continuity, processes, and internal controls
- External controls: urban planning, police, military
Readings for Test 2 (Based mainly on Part III)
Miller Chapters 11,12,13.
Deutschmann: 1, 2, appendices
Test Two (November 13)
PART IV Public Opinion and other Mass Phenomena
- Diffuse collectivities, Fads, Publics, and Masses
- Publics, Public Opinion
- Propaganda, Censorship and Terrorism
- The "cult" phenomenon; revitalization and messianism.
PART V Collective Behaviour in Sociology and Society

Social Movements and Collective Behavior -
SOCI 3250
Instructor and Contact Information: Elizabeth Cherry, M.A.

Course Overview and Objectives:
The subfield of social movements and collective behavior is unusual, in that it is not clearly or consistently defined. In fact, it most often appears to be two subfields, rather than one. “Collective behavior” originally referred to spontaneous, emergent actions such as crowd behavior or panics and included topics such as fads, fashions, rumors, mass hysterias, and social movements. However, since their rapid proliferation in the 1960s, social movements have become, for many analysts, a separate area of study from collective behavior.
The study of social movements is one of the most dynamic and fastest growing fields in sociology, and thus this course will cover social movements in more detail and depth than collective behavior. We will begin with an overview of collective behavior, plotting the course of the subfield and its relation to the study of social movements. We will then move on to cover theoretical, historical, and empirical studies of social movements throughout the 20th century.
The main objective of this course is to situate social movements within the larger context of social, cultural, and political change. You will also gain an understanding of theories of why and how people come to participate in social movements, how internal and external structures create opportunities for and threats to social movements, the role of culture and identity in newer social movements, as well as the nuts and bolts of social movements—their strategies, tactics, goals, and outcomes.
In working toward these objectives, you will also have the opportunity to improve upon your sociological reading, writing, and research skills. Writing and researching as a sociologist is different from writing and researching as an English major, for example, thus in this course we will not only work toward gaining an understanding of the topic at hand, but we will also strive to improve your skills as sociology majors. These skills should also be of use in your other classes as well as in your careers.

Required Texts and Readings:
1) Marx, Gary and Douglas McAdam. 1994. Collective Behavior and Social Movements: Process and Structure. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
2) Goodwin, Jeff and James

Social Movement Portfolio
The major portion of your grade will be based on your independent research on a social movement of your choice. The case study will include three items that you will complete throughout the semester. At the end of the semester, you will turn in your entire portfolio and you will have the opportunity to present your findings to your classmates.
Below is a list of suggested movements to study. These movements are all pre-approved for the case study; if you are interested in studying a movement that is not on this list, I must approve it before you turn in any work on this movement.

Pre-approved Movements
1) Animal Rights
2) Anti-Abortion (“pro-life”)
3) Anti-Nuclear
4) Black/African-American
5) Chicano/a
6) Civil Rights
7) Environmental
8) Gay and Lesbian Rights
9) Indigenous
10) Labor
11) Militia
12) Movements to Combat AIDS
13) Peace
14) Reproductive Rights (“pro-choice”)
15) Revolutionary
16) Welfare Rights
17) White Supremacy
18) Women/Feminist

Week 1
Introduction to course, review syllabus
The sociological study of CBSM MM 1
Crowd Behavior MM 2
Week 2
Introduction to theories of mobilization MM 4

Week 3
Political Process GJ Part II intro, GJ 2
Film and theory application exercise
Political Opportunities GJ 5
Week 4
Framing Processes GJ Part III intro, C 1
Framing activity
Social Networks GJ 6
Week 5
Moral Shocks C 2
Review of theories, discuss SM portfolios

Week 6
Resource Mobilization GJ Part VI intro, GJ 16
Affinity Groups GJ 19
Diffuse Cultural Movements C 3
Week 7
External Opportunities C 4
External Threats GJ 27
Film and theory application exercise

Week 8
Collective Identity GJ Part IV intro, GJ 11
Exclusions C 5
Film and theory application exercise
Week 9
Cultural Influences and Impacts C 6
Discourse C 7
Film and theory application exercise
Week 11
Music and Mobilization C 8
Music and Commitment C 9
In-class film (full-length)

Week 13
Introduction MM p107-114
Tactical Innovation GJ Part VII Intro, GJ 21
Tactical Innovation Exercise
Week 14
Strategies GJ 22
Tactical Choices C 10
Movement Successes GJ Part X Intro, GJ 31
Week 15
Unintended Outcomes C 11
Movement Decline C 12
Closing comments on Social Movements

Collective Behavior
Sociology 331-002 Course Syllabus
Instructor: Danielle Albright - E-mail:

Course Description
This course is a survey of the various traditions of collective behavior and social movement theory. In addition to exploring different types of collective behavior, we will cover both classical and contemporary explanations of how social movements arise, work, and disintegrate.

Course Materials
Required reading is posted on the libraries e-reserve system. To access the libraries e-reserve system, go to search for the course page by my name or the course number and log in using the password organize.
Johnston, William A. Jr. and Richard P. Rettig, Gregory M. Scott, and Stephen M. Garrison. 2006. The Sociology Student Writer’s Manual, 5th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Week 1: Pleasantries
Introduction to the course
Theoretical Paradigms and Research Methods in Sociology

Part I—Old School
Week 2: Collective Behavior and Collective Action
Crowds, Publics, Masses
Blumer, Herbert. 1969. “Elementary and Collective Groupings.” In Social Movements: Perspectives and Issues, 1997.
Steven M. Buechler and F. Kurt Cylke, Jr. (Eds). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. Pages 72-81.
Social Movements
Blumer, Herbert. 1969. “Elementary and Collective Groupings.” In Social Movements: Perspectives and Issues, 1997.
Steven M. Buechler and F. Kurt Cylke, Jr. (Eds). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. Pages 81-91.

Week 3: Deprivation and Structural Strain Theories of Social Movements
Mass Society Theory
Kornhauser, William. 1959. “The Politics of Mass Society.” In Social Movements: Perspectives and Issues, 1997.
Steven M. Buechler and F. Kurt Cylke, Jr. (Eds). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. Pages 91-97.
The “Classical Model”
McAdam, Doug. 1982. “The Classical Model of Social Movements Examined.”
In Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Pages 5-19.

Part II—Contemporary Theories
Week 4: Resource Mobilization
Assigning of Groups, Movements Assigned, Explanation of Group Work
HW 1 Hypotheses of Resource Mobilization Due
McCarthy, John D. and Mayer N. Zald. 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” American Journal of Sociology, 82: 6, 1212-1241.

Week 5: Political Process and Challenges to Resource Mobilization
Beyond Resource Mobilization ?
Buechler, Steven M. 1993. “Beyond Resource Mobilization? Emerging Trends in Social Movement Theory.” Sociological Quarterly, 34: 2, 217-235.
The Political Process Model
McAdam, Doug. 1982. “The Political Process Model.” From Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pages 36-59.

Week 6: Political Process continued… and Studying Past Movements
Developing Formal Organization, Mobilizing Resources, and Gaining Access to Political Power
Studying Past Movements
Clemens, Elisabeth S. and Martin D. Hughes. 2002. “Recovering Past Protest: Historical Research on Social Movements.” In Methods of Social Movement Research, 2002. Bert Klandermans and Suzanne Staggenborg, (Eds). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Pages 201-230.

Week 7: Frame Alignment and Social Movements
Snow, David; E. Burke Rochford, Jr.; Steven K. Worden; and Robert D. Benford. 1986. “Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation. American Sociological Review, 51: 4, 464-481.
Movement Framing, Gaining Participants, Articulating Grievances

Week 8: Discourse, Identity, and the Construction of Social Movements
What is Discourse?
Johnston, Hank. 2002. “Verification and Proof in Frame and Discourse Analysis.” In Methods of Social Movement Research, 2002. Bert Klandermans and Suzanne Staggenborg, (Eds). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Pages 62-91.
Constructing Social Movements
Gamson, William A. 1995. “Constructing Social Protest.” In Social Movements and Culture, 1995. Hank Johnston and Bert Klandermans, (Eds). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Week 10: Constructing Protest continued and New Social Movement Theory
Analyzing Protest
Koopmans, Ruud and Dieter Rucht. 2002. “Protest Event Analysis.” In Methods of Social Movement Research, 2002. Bert Klandermans and Suzanne Staggenborg, (Eds). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Pages 231-259.
Culture and the New Social Movements
Patillo-McCoy, Mary. 1998. “Church Culture as a Strategy of Action in the Black Community.” American Sociological Review, 63, 6: 767-784.

Week 11: Wrap up Parts I and II
Developing Your Cultural Tool Kit
Single Case Studies
Snow, David A. and Danny Trom. 2002. “The Case Study and the Study of Social Movements.” In Methods of Social Movement Research, 2002. Bert Klandermans and Suzanne Staggenborg, (Eds). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Pages 146-172.

Part III: Opposition and Movement Longevity
Week 13: Movement Challenges
Pressures from the Outside
Marx, Gary. 1997. “External Efforts to Damage or Facilitate Social Movements.” In Social Movements: Perspectives and Issues, 1997. Steven M. Buechler and F. Kurt Cylke, Jr. (Eds). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. Pages 360-384.
Mottl, Tahi L. 1980. “The Analysis of Countermovements.” Social Problems, 27: 5, 620-635.

Week 14: Movement Challenges continued and Social Movement Survival
Countermovements and Other External Opposition
Do movements last?
Taylor, Verta. 1989. “Social Movement Continuity: The Women’s Movement in Abeyance.” American Sociological Review, 54: 5, 761-775.

Collective Behaviour and Social Movement

Theories of collective behavior and classical social movements.