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DEVELOPMENTAL CRIME PREVENTION

Situational Crime Prevention, Effective Guardianship, Community Crime Prevention

Developmental crime prevention is an approach to crime prevention which focuses on the way a crime occurs or a victimization happens. The community may focus on helping teachers develop self-control in young people, provide follow up on violent behaviour by young people or educate the public to make their property more secure.

In general developmental crime prevention approach to crime prevention tries to prevent the development of a motivated offender.

Prevention experiments with children have targeted the development of antisocial behavior and confirm the hypothesis that early childhood factors are important precursors of delinquent behavior and that a cumulative effect model best fits the data. Experiments have aimed to prevent criminal behavior or one of three important delinquency risk factors: socially disruptive behavior, cognitive deficits, and poor parenting.

Experiments with juvenile delinquency as an outcome demonstrate that positive results are more likely when interventions are aimed at more than one risk factor, last for a relatively long period of time, and are implemented before adolescence. - Abstract - Developmental Crime Prevention - Richard E. Tremblay, Wendy M. Craig - Crime and Justice, Vol. 19, Building a Safer Society: Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention (1995).

Developmental and early intervention approaches to crime prevention
ISSN 1448-1383 1 July 2003
Abstract: Developmental and early intervention strategies for the reduction and prevention of crime can operate across all three levels of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary.
Developmental prevention is intervention early in developmental pathways that may lead to the emergence and recurrence of criminal behaviours and other social problems. It does not just mean early in life, although inevitably many of the critical moments for effective intervention will occur during the early years. 
Developmental crime prevention emphasises investment in strategies and programs for creating "child friendly" institutions and communities. It also focuses on the manipulation of multiple risk and protective factors at crucial transition points across a lifetime. Such points can be around birth, the preschool years, the transition from primary to secondary school, and subsequent transitions to higher education, employment, and so on.
In Australia, developmental prevention programs typically cover areas such as parenting and early childhood support, literacy training and alternative learning programs, anti-bullying initiatives in schools, programs addressing violence reduction, self-esteem and self-empowerment development and training, job skills training and development, and early school-leavers' programs.
The growing interest in developmental and early intervention for the prevention and reduction of crime is mainly driven by two closely related factors: frustration at the apparent failure of conventional strategies to prevent the long-term growth and recurrence of crime in the community; and evidence from a small number of well researched and evaluated initiatives which strongly suggest that significant long-term benefits will accrue from effective developmental and early crime intervention programs. 
The most significant challenge for developmental and early intervention crime prevention remains moving the research evidence into effective everyday programs.

Homel, R. et al. 1999, Pathways to Prevention: Developmental and Early Intervention Approaches to Crime in Australia, Commonwealth Attorney-General's Department, Canberra.

Tremblay, R.E., and W. Craig 1995 Developmental crime prevention.

“Developmental and Early Intervention Approaches to Crime Prevention” - Dr Linda Gilmore, Psychologist and Senior Lecturer, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
Dr Gilmore is a member of the Developmental Crime Prevention Consortium which produced the 1999 report Pathways to prevention: Developmental and early intervention approaches to crime in Australia, and is currently co-authoring a book about developmental approaches to crime and crime policy for Cambridge University Press.
Presentation Abstract: This topic addresses the developmental pathways that lead to criminal behaviour, and considers the evidence base for effective early interventions. Developmental and early intervention approaches to crime prevention highlights new directions in developmental prevention.

Community crime prevention is a general category of prevention strategies which focus on the community itself.

This general category of community crime prevention includes strategies such as ‘developmental crime prevention’, ‘effective guardianship’ or ‘situational crime prevention’.