Sociology Index


Diffuseness of roles and diffuseness of goals is a characteristic of relatively simple societies where people encounter each other in a variety of overlapping roles. Where there is diffuseness of roles, there is little occupational specialization and no clear separation of private and public spheres of life. People are continuously reminded of their extensive bonds with others. Diffuseness of roles is associated with Traditional Society and Specificity of roles is associated with Modern Society. The diffuseness of ownership leads to a reduction in shareholder control over managers, and as their interests are not always aligned, resources may not be allocated in order to maximize the value of the company. Berle and Means (1932).

Diffuseness and Specificity

In a small town school, one may find diffuseness because the same friends will be meeting up and doing things together. In professional collages, one may find specificity. In a diffuseness culture, personal contact and agreement is perceived to be valuable and therefore preferred over a contract. Contracts are perceived to be an essential part of business procedure for specific cultures. In a specific culture, people commonly trust only the hard evidence such as a paper contract rather than a promise made by a person.

Australia is an example of a specific specificity while in Thailand is an example of a diffuseness. When dealing with Australian guests, it may be important to provide them with some solid evidence to confirm details of their vacation. Talcott Parsons distinguished between underdeveloped and developed countries. According to his model, which is called Pattern variables: Underdeveloped and Traditional countries are characterized by: Ascription - family, ethnic, personal or political connections play a great role in promotion and in making one’s way through in the society in general. Diffuseness - different institutions, like military or religious ones play political roles.

Light diffuseness metric Part 1: Theory
L Xia, MSc, SC Pont, PhD, I Heynderickx, PhD.

Abstract: The light density, direction and diffuseness are important indicators of the spatial and form-giving character of light. Mury presented a method to describe, measure and visualise the light field’s structure in terms of light density and direction variations in three-dimensional spaces.

We extend this work with a theoretical and empirical review of four diffuseness metrics leading to a novel metric proposal DXia. In particular, the relationships between these diffuseness metrics were studied using a model named ‘probe in a sphere’. Diffuseness metric DXia re-frames the diffuseness metric of Cuttle in an integral description of the light field. It fulfils all diffuseness criteria and has the advantage that it can be used in a global, integrated description of the light flow and diffuseness throughout three-dimensional spaces