Sociology Index


Ethnic Group is a group of individuals having a common distinct culture or a subculture. Ethnic group and ethnic identity differs from that of Race as it implies that values, norms, behavior and language are the distinguishing characteristic. Ethnic groups are minority groups within other cultures. An ethnic group is people who identify with each other based on common ancestry, history, language, society and culture. Ethnicity is inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group is defined by a shared cultural heritage, history, homeland, mythology, ritual, cuisine, dressing style, and physical appearance.

Ethnic groups continue to speak similar language and also belong to a similar gene pool. Only by acculturation, adoption and religious conversion, ethnis groups become part of another. The largest ethnic groups are Han Chinese, and the smallest are limited to indigenous peoples. Larger ethnic groups can be subdivided into smaller sub-groups like tribes or clans.

In the last 20 years in Canada, the multi-ethnic population has grown by almost 4 million people – almost double the overall population growth rate – to make up 41 per cent of the country's total population. This is where people who can afford to settle should go. Multi-ethnic population makes Canada safe for everyone—whatever the past history.


Racial and Ethnic Identity: Their Relationship and Their Contribution to Self-Esteem - Renee Goodstein, St. Francis College, Joseph G. Ponterotto, Fordham University-Lincoln Center. Multiple regression analyses for Blacks indicated racial and ethnic identity explained a proportion of the variability in self-esteem. Multiple regression analyses for Whites indicated racial and ethnic identity variables did not contribute to the variance in self-esteem.

Ethnic Identity and Its Relation to Self-Esteem and Ego Identity Among College Students in a Multiethnic Region - Yuh, Jongil - Abstract: The role of ethnic identity in psychological adjustment. Implications for multiculturalism are discussed.

From Ethnic to Interethnic - The Case for Identity Adaptation and Transformation - Young Yun Kim, University of Oklahoma, Norman. Ethnic identity as morally inviolable human condition attributed to a social group identified by birth or ascription.

A Validity Study of Scores on the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure Based on a Sample of Academically Talented Adolescents - Frank C. Worrell, The Pennsylvania State Univ. Validity of scores on the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure in a group of talented adolescents attending a summer enrichment program.

Language and Ethnic Identity: An Overview and Prologue 
William B. Gudykunst, Karen L. Schmidt, Department of Communication, Arizona State University.
To overview the study of language and ethnic identity. The social categorisation, the influence of social categorisations on language attitudes and social psychological aspects of language attitudes and sociolinguistic stereotype.

Ethnic Identity Moderates Perceptions of Prejudice: Judgments of Personal Versus Group Discrimination and Subtle Versus Blatant Bias - Don Operario, University of California, San Francisco, - Susan T. Fiske.
Two studies. First, examined the relationship between ethnic identity and the personal-group discrimination. Second, examined minorities’ perceptions of prejudice.

The Impact of Multiple Dimensions of Ethnic Identity on Discrimination and Adolescents' Self-Esteem - Romero A.J.; Roberts R.E. - Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Volume 33, Number 11, 1 November 2003.
Abstract: Discussed in the context of understanding methods of coping with prejudice and discrimination in order to enhance the mental well-being of minority youth.

Why Are Latinos the Most Uninsured Racial/Ethnic Group of US Children? A Community-Based Study of Risk Factors for and Consequences of Being an Uninsured Latino Child. Glenn Flores, MD, Milagros Abreu, MD and Sandra C. Tomany-Korman, MS - Uninsured Latino children are more likely than insured to have no regular physician and medical care because of expense.

Ethnic Identity is an individual's membership in a distinct group and commitment to that group's values. Ethnic identity is the subjective aspect of ethnicity. Ethnic identity in relation to self-esteem and esteem toward others with attitudes toward one’s own and also other ethnic groups is important.

Procedural Justice and Social Regulation Across Group Boundaries: Does Subgroup Identity Undermine Relationship-Based Governance? Yuen J. Huo, University of California, Los Angeles. Among all ethnic groups there is positive correlations between measures of American and ethnic identity.

Stages of Ethnic Identity Development in Minority Group Adolescents 
Jean S. Phinney, California State University, Los Angeles.
Ethnic identity achieved subjects had highest scores on independent measure of ego identity and on psychological adjustment.

Ethnic Identity, Ethnic Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Esteem toward Others among Estonian and Russian Adolescents - Aune Valk - Ethnic pride was associated with positive esteem toward others. Ethnic pride and ethnic differentiation may vary across different ethnic groups.

The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults From Two Contexts - Linda P. Juang, Yunghui Lin, San Francisco State University , Huong H. Nguyen.
How types of functioning are differentially influenced by ethnic identity and group attitudes and these identities and attitudes are embedded.

Toward the Theoretical Measurement of Ethnic Identity 
Phillip O. Pegg, Western Kentucky University, Laura E. Plybon, Bethel College.
To examine the psychometric qualities of two theoretical subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, Ethnic Identity Exploration and Ethnic Identity Commitment.

The Assessment of Ethnic Identity in a Diverse Urban Youth Population 
Antronette K. Yancey, Carol S. Aneshensel, Anne K. Driscoll.
Whites score significantly lower than African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos, consistent with the literature on interethnic variation in the salience of ethnic identity.

The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM): Psychometric Review and Further Validity Testing 
Joseph G. Ponterotto, Denise Gretchen, Thomas Stracuzzi, Robert Saya, Jr., Shawn O. Utsey.
Examines the psychometric strengths and limitations of a measure of ethnic identity development called the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure.

Discourses about ethnic group (de-)essentialism: Oppressive and progressive aspects - Verkuyten M.
Essentialism is not oppressive and that de-essentialism is not progressive.