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ETHNIC GROUP AND ETHNIC IDENTITY

Ethnic Group is a group of individuals having a distinct culture or a subculture in common. The idea of ‘ethnic group’ differs from that of ‘Race’ because it implies that values, norms, behaviour and language are the important distinguishing characteristic, not necessarily physical appearance. Ethnic groups are thought of as minority groups within another culture.

Ethnic Identity is an individual's awareness of membership in a distinct group and of commitment to the group's cultural values. Ethnic identity is the subjective aspect of ethnicity, but for many people their ethnic heritage has little subjective meaning although it can be objectively determined.

Ethnic Identity, Ethnic Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Esteem toward Others among Estonian and Russian Adolescents - Aune Valk, University of Tartu 
Ethnic identity in relation to self-esteem and esteem toward others, along with attitudes toward one’s own and other ethnic groups, was examined among Estonian and Russian adolescents.

Significant differences appeared across components of ethnic identity and between minority and majority groups. Positive feelings about the in-group ethnic pride were associated with positive attitudes toward other ethnic groups among minority but not majority youths. Strong ethnic differentiation, in turn, was associated with negative out-group attitudes among both groups and positive in-group attitudes among the majority group. This contrast between aspects of ethnic identity appeared also in relation to self-esteem and esteem toward others. Whereas ethnic pride was associated with positive esteem toward others, ethnic differentiation correlated with negative evaluation of other people. Self-esteem correlated negatively with ethnic differentiation and was not related to ethnic pride. The salience of ethnic pride and ethnic differentiation may vary across different ethnic groups, depending on the group status and historical background of identity development.

Ethnic Identity Moderates Perceptions of Prejudice: Judgments of Personal Versus Group Discrimination and Subtle Versus Blatant Bias - Don Operario, University of California, San Francisco, - Susan T. Fiske, Princeton University 
Two studies investigate the association between ethnic identity and perceptions of prejudice. Study 1 examined the relationship between ethnic identity and the personal-group discrimination discrepancy among ethnic minority and White respondents. High-identified minorities reported increased personal vulnerability to discrimination and less personal-group discrimination discrepancy, whereas less-identified minorities conformed more to the personal-group discrimination discrepancy phenomenon. Whites also reported more personal than group discrimination, but ethnic identity did not moderate this effect. Study 2 examined minorities’ perceptions of prejudice in an interaction with a White confederate, who displayed either obvious or subtle prejudice. High-identified minorities showed stronger reactions to subtle prejudice than did low-identified minorities, who tended to overlook subtle prejudice. The authors relate findings to principles from stigma research, social identity, and self-categorization theory and suggest that ethnic identity can explain why some minorities perceive prejudice when others do not.

Procedural Justice and Social Regulation Across Group Boundaries: Does Subgroup Identity Undermine Relationship-Based Governance? Yuen J. Huo, University of California, Los Angeles 
The relational model of authority suggests that people are inclined to accept the decisions of ethnic outgroup authorities when they identify with a superordinate category they share with the authority, and when the authority satisfies their relational justice concerns. Using responses from a random sample of African Americans, Latinos, and Whites about their cross-ethnic interactions with legal authorities, the findings indicated that those who are highly identified with the superordinate category of America indicate greater reliance on relational concerns and less on instrumental concerns when evaluating the authority’s decision. In contrast, identification with one’s ethnic subgroup did not moderate the linkage between relational concerns and acceptance. Across all ethnic groups, there were positive rather than negative correlations between measures of American and ethnic identity. Together, these findings indicate that subgroup identity does not undermine the relational basis of social regulation and that relationship-based governance is compatible with multiculturalism.

Stages of Ethnic Identity Development in Minority Group Adolescents 
Jean S. Phinney, California State University, Los Angeles 
Stages of ethnic identity development were assessed through in-depth interviews with 91 Asian-American, Black, Hispanic, and White tenth-grade students, all American born, from integrated urban high schools. Subjects were also given questionnaire measures of ego identity and psychological adjustment. On the basis of the interviews, minority subjects were coded as being in one of three identity stages; White subjects could not be reliably coded. Among the minorities, about one-half of the subjects had not explored their ethnicity (diffusion/foreclosure); about one-quarter were involved in exploration (moratorium); and about one-quarter had explored and were committed to an ethnic identity (ethnic identity achieved). Ethnic-identity-achieved subjects had the highest scores on an independent measure of ego identity and on psychological adjustment. The process of identity development was similar across the three minority groups, but the particular issues faced by each group were different.

The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults From Two Contexts - Linda P. Juang, Yunghui Lin, San Francisco State University , Huong H. Nguyen, Brandeis University,
Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnicallyconcentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to parents) and (b) how these relations were moderated by context. Results (direct effects) indicated that ethnic identity predicted more positive functioning in terms of self-esteem and connectedness to parents, whereas other-group attitudes predicted more positive functioning in terms of self-esteem and depression. Furthermore, moderated effects indicated that the links with other-group attitudes did not vary with context but that the links with ethnic identity did. Ethnic identity was linked to more positive functioning in terms of depression and connectedness to parents only for those in the ethnically-concentrated context. These findings demonstrate how different types of functioning are differentially influenced by ethnic identity and other-group attitudes and by the contexts in which these identities and attitudes are embedded.

Initial Investigation of Jewish Early Adolescents’ Ethnic Identity, Stress, and Coping 
Eric F. Dubow, Kenneth I. Pargament, Paul Boxer, Nalini Tarakeshwar, Bowling Green State University 
Ethnic identity was examined as a source of stress and as a coping resource among Jewish sixth through eighth graders (N = 75). Over 50% of the students reported having experienced various ethnic-related stressors in the past year (e.g., being restricted from activities due to the Sabbath, experiencing anti-Semitic comments). Jewish early adolescents also endorsed ethnic and religious coping strategies from three coping scale factors: Seeking God’s Direction/Support ("I ask God to forgive me for the things I did wrong"); Seeking Cultural/Social Support ("I look forward to the Sabbath"); and Spiritual Struggle ("I start to wonder whether God can really do everything"). Components of ethnic identity were related positively both to ethnic-related stressors and coping strategies, indicating that although high levels of ethnic identity might heighten Jewish adolescents’ sensitivity to ethnic-related stressors, ethnic identity might serve also as a resource for coping with those stressors.

Toward the Theoretical Measurement of Ethnic Identity 
Phillip O. Pegg, Western Kentucky University, Laura E. Plybon, Bethel College 
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric qualities of two theoretical subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), Ethnic Identity Exploration and Ethnic Identity Commitment, that have been supported in research with early adolescent samples. The study was conducted to further validate the MEIM as a two-factor measure of the theoretical constructs of ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment. This study was conducted with 134 African American girls residing in a southeastern city. Psychometric support was found for the use of a subset of items derived from the MEIM that assesses the constructs of ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment. Discussion regarding the psychometric quality of the two-factor model is presented.

Ethnic Identity and Its Relation to Self-Esteem and Ego Identity Among College Students in a Multiethnic Region - Yuh, Jongil - Abstract: This study investigated the role of ethnic identity in psychological adjustment. A sample of 209 college students in a multiethnic region completed questionnaires on ethnic identity, self-esteem, and ego identity. The results indicated that ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, especially with the affirmation and belonging component among Japanese and Filipino American students, and with the ethnic identity achievement component among multiethnic students. The overall relationship between ethnic and ego identities was positive, particularly in ethnic identity achievement scores. The combination of strong ethnic identity and a positive attitude toward other groups was related to advanced ego identity. Ethnic identity was different among ethnic groups, revealing that the development of ethnic identity is interactive in social contexts. Suggestions for future research and implications for multiculturalism are discussed.

The Impact of Multiple Dimensions of Ethnic Identity on Discrimination and Adolescents' Self-Esteem - Romero A.J.; Roberts R.E. - Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Volume 33, Number 11, 1 November 2003
Abstract: The rejection-identification model is investigated with multiple dimensions of ethnic identity in a sample of Mexican American youth. It is hypothesized that more perceived discrimination will be associated with higher ethnic identity in general, but that the multiple dimensions of ethnic identity will be associated differentially with discrimination. Higher perceived discrimination will be associated with more ethnic exploration and less ethnic affirmation. Self-report questionnaires were completed by middle school students of Mexican descent (N = 881). Based on structural equation modeling, the data were found to fit the rejection-identification model (p < .05). Higher discrimination was associated with lower ethnic affirmation (p < .05) and lower ethnic exploration (p < .05). Post hoc analyses indicated a significant interaction between discrimination and ethnic affirmation (p < .01) such that youth with high ethnic affirmation who experienced high discrimination still reported high self-esteem. The findings are discussed in the context of understanding methods of coping with prejudice and discrimination that will enhance the mental well-being of minority youth.

Racial and Ethnic Identity: Their Relationship and Their Contribution to Self-Esteem 
Renee Goodstein, St. Francis College, Joseph G. Ponterotto, Fordham University-Lincoln Center 
This study explores the relationship between racial identity, ethnic identity, other-group orientation, and self-esteem among 126 Black and 292 White students. Pearson product-moment correlations for Blacks revealed that those holding anti-Black and pro-White attitudes showed low ethnic group attachment, whereas those with internalized attitudes showed high ethnic attachment. There was no relationship between ethnic and racial group attachment among Whites, but a significant relationship was found between racial identity and other-group orientation. Multiple regression analyses for Blacks indicated that racial and ethnic identity explained a significant proportion of the variability in self-esteem. The results for Whites indicated that racial and ethnic identity variables did not contribute meaningfully to the variance in self-esteem. Two orientations to multicultural work-visible racial-ethnic group and salience models-were introduced and discussed in light of the results' implications for research and practice.

The Assessment of Ethnic Identity in a Diverse Urban Youth Population 
Antronette K. Yancey, Carol S. Aneshensel, University of California, Los Angeles 
Anne K. Driscoll, University of California, Davis 
This article examines the assessment of ethnic identity in a multiethnic, probability sample of urban adolescents using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). The concept of ethnic identity captures the incorporation of ethnicity into self-perception, providing a pivotal link to the social psychological consequences of minority status. A more generalizable psychometric examination of an instrument used extensively in research on African American youth to capture this phenomenon is warranted. This investigation seeks to identify revisions of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure that would render it more useful for interethnic and intraethnic comparisons, utilizing a sample more heterogeneous and representative than those of prior studies. Item and exploratory factor analyses indicate that 10 of 14 items can be combined into a short form (MEIM-S) that measures aspects of this phenomenon that are comparable across ethnic groups, and identify two factors. In general, Whites score significantly lower than African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos, whose scores tend to be similar to one another, consistent with the literature on interethnic variation in the salience of ethnic identity.

From Ethnic to Interethnic - The Case for Identity Adaptation and Transformation 
Young Yun Kim, University of Oklahoma, Norman 
The academic literature for the past several decades suggests an increased tendency to conceive "ethnic identity" as an a priori and morally inviolable human condition exclusively attributed to a social group identified by birth or ascription. Paralleling this trend is a gradual shift toward a more pluralistic ideology of interethnic relations and toward a greater emphasis on political activism in social research. In this historical context, the article identifies two interrelated problematics in the prevailing pluralistic conceptions of ethnic identity: positivity bias and oversimplification. These problematic aspects are examined against the well-documented individual and situational variations in ethnic identity. As a way to counterbalance and complement the pluralistic conceptions, a theoretical account for the process of identity transformation is offered. This dynamic theory highlights the experiences of many individuals who, through their communication activities of crisscrossing ethnic boundaries, have moved beyond the perimeters of a single ethnic category in their identity orientations.

The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM): Psychometric Review and Further Validity Testing 
Joseph G. Ponterotto, Denise Gretchen, Thomas Stracuzzi, Robert Saya, Jr., Fordham University-Lincoln Center,  Shawn O. Utsey, Howard University 
This article examines the psychometric strengths and limitations of a widely used measure of ethnic identity development: the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). A review of 12 studies incorporating the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure found its two subscales, Ethnic Identity (EI) and Other-Group Orientation (OGO), to be relatively distinct, have satisfactory levels of internal consistency, and have moderate degrees of construct and criterion-related validity. The first confirmatory factor analysis (N=219) of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure is reported, the results of which indicate that a two-factor structure is a better fit than a global model but that the goodness of fit is mediocre. A follow-up exploratory factor analysis identified weaker items, and suggestions for possible MEIM revision are presented. Finally, the first formal readability analysis of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure places item difficulty at the sixth- to seventh-grade level.

A Validity Study of Scores on the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure Based on a Sample of Academically Talented Adolescents - Frank C. Worrell, The Pennsylvania State University 
This study examined the validity of scores on the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) in a group of 275 academically talented adolescents attending a summer enrichment program. The two-factor solution reported by Phinney was essentially replicated with this sample using exploratory factor analysis. Factor I (Ethnic Identity) scores had a reliability coefficient of .89, and Factor II (Other Group Orientation) scores had a reliability coefficient of .76. Although the replication of Phinney’s results provides supportive evidence for the factor structure of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the instrument would benefit from work on its psychometric soundness, particularly as ethnic identity is hypothesized to be related to many important variables in adolescence.

Language and Ethnic Identity: An Overview and Prologue 
William B. Gudykunst, Karen L. Schmidt, Department of Communication, Arizona State University 
The purpose of this essay is to overview the study of language and ethnic identity. The general role of language in social categorisation and the influence of social categorisations on language attitudes, as well as the specific influence of ethnic identity on the microsociolinguistic, macrosociolinguistic, and social psychological aspects of language use, language attitudes, sociolinguistic stereotypes, ethnolinguistic vitality, and speech accommodation are reviewed.

Why Are Latinos the Most Uninsured Racial/Ethnic Group of US Children? A Community-Based Study of Risk Factors for and Consequences of Being an Uninsured Latino Child 
Glenn Flores, MD, Milagros Abreu, MD and Sandra C. Tomany-Korman, MS 
BACKGROUND. Latinos continue to be the most uninsured racial/ethnic group of US children, but not enough is known about the risk factors for and consequences of not being insured in Latino children. 
The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for and consequences of being uninsured in Latino children. 
A cross-sectional survey was conducted of parents at urban, predominantly Latino community sites, including supermarkets, beauty salons, and laundromats. Parents were asked 76 questions on access and health insurance. 
Compared with insured Latino children, uninsured Latino children had 23 times the odds of having no regular physician and were significantly more likely not to be brought in for needed medical care because of expense, lack of health insurance, difficulty making appointments, and cultural barriers. Uninsured Latino children are significantly more likely than insured Latino children to have no regular physician and not to get needed medical care because of expense, lack of health insurance, difficulty making appointments, and cultural barriers.

Discourses about ethnic group (de-)essentialism: Oppressive and progressive aspects - Verkuyten M.
Abstract: Social psychologists studying intergroup perceptions have shown an increasing interest in essentialist thinking. Essentialist beliefs about social groups are examined as cognitive processes and these beliefs would serve to rationalize and justify the existing social system. Discourse analyses on racism have emphasized that problems of racism are to a large extent problems of essentialism. Anti-essentialism has emerged as an emancipatory discourse in the challenge of hegemonic representations and oppressive relations. The present study examines how, in group discussions, ethnic Dutch and ethnic minority people define and use essentialist notions about social groups. Both Dutch and ethnic minority participants engaged in an essentialist discourse in which an intrinsic link between culture and ethnicity was made. However, there were also examples where this discourse was criticized and rejected. This variable use of (de-)essentialism is examined in terms of the conversation's context and issues at hand, such as questions of assimilation, group provisions, cultural rights, and agency. The main conclusion of this paper is that essentialism is not by definition oppressive and that de-essentialism is not by definition progressive. The discursive power of (de-)essentialist group beliefs depends on the way they are used and the context in which they appear.

Ethnic Identity and Ethnic Attitudes.