Ethnocentrism is the assumption that the culture of one's own group is moral, right and rational and that other cultures are inferior. Ethnocentrism denotes a positive orientation toward those sharing the same ethnicity and a negative one toward others. Sometimes ethnocentrism will be combined with racism, the belief that individuals can be classified into distinct racial groups and that there is a biologically-based hierarchy of race. It is ethnocentrism when individuals confront a different culture and judge it with reference to their own standards. One can reject a different culture without in any way assuming the inherent inferiority of its members as in an ethnocentric approach. Ethnocentrism is a nearly universal syndrome, typically including in-group favoritism.
Empirical evidence suggests that a predisposition to favor in-groups can be easily triggered by even arbitrary group distinctions. There a robustness of ethnocentric behaviors of in-group favoritism. Consumer ethnocentrism is an important concept that is used to understand international marketing phenomena. Consumer ethnocentrism provokes negative attitudes toward both foreign advertisements and foreign products.
Two studies investigated relationships among individual differences in implicit and explicit prejudice, right-wing ideology, and rigidity in thinking. The first study examined these relationships focusing on White Americans’ prejudice toward Black Americans. The second study provided the first test of implicit ethnocentrism and its relationship to explicit ethnocentrism by studying the relationship between attitudes toward five social groups. Factor analyses found support for both implicit and explicit ethnocentrism.
A study provided the first test of implicit ethnocentrism and its relationship to explicit ethnocentrism by studying the relationship between attitudes toward five social groups. Latent variable modeling indicates a simple structure within this ethnocentrism, with variables organized in order of specificity. The results concluded that implicit ethnocentrism exists and it is related to and distinct from explicit ethnocentrism. Implicit and Explicit Ethnocentrism: Revisiting the Ideologies of Prejudice - William A.Cunningham, John B. Nezlek, College of William & Mary, Mahzarin R. Banaji.
In line with social identity theory, minimal group paradigm studies have shown that high in-group identifiers discriminate more than low in-group identifiers. One week prior to a MGP study, 121 undergraduates completed scales assessing their ethnocentrism, authoritarianism, and personal need for structure. Path analysis showed that ethnocentrism and perception of control over group ascription predicted degree of in-group identification, which in turn, was positively related to discriminatory behavior. Ethnocentrism, Social Identification, and Discrimination - Stephane Perreault, Richard Y. Bourhis.
The sociology of religion claims to possess a cross-culturally valid objectivity that is belied by its paradigm shift in both classical and recent times. Issues as the changing bases of religious authority, secularization and rational choice theory depends in large part on Western models of religion, and on key Western values. - Ethnocentrism, Social Theory and Non-Western Sociologies of Religion. - Toward a Confucian Alternative- James V. Spickard, University of Redlands, California.
To explain ethnocentrism in the Netherlands, a model derived from theoretical notions of prominent members of the Frankfurt School is tested with data of a national sample of Dutch respondents. Authoritarianism is found to be a far more important predictor of ethnocentrism than predictors related to one's social condition. Social conditions, authoritarianism and ethnocentrism: a theoretical model of the early Frankfurt School updated and tested - P. SCHEEPERS, A. FELLING and J. PETERS.
The study shows that such behaviors can become widespread and can support very high levels of cooperation, even in one-move prisoners dilemma games. When cooperation is costly to individuals, the authors show how ethnocentrism can be necessary to sustain cooperation. The Evolution of Ethnocentrism - Ross A. Hammond, Department of Political Science, Robert Axelrod, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Ethnocentrism is conceptualized as a Immanuel Kant form of intuition that plays a knowledge-producing role. The focus of this analysis is on Western ethnocentrism. Explicit expression of Western ethnocentrism in academia is scientific racism, which has been an important research program in the history of the science of mental life.
Another manifestation of ethnocentrism, a hidden one is
analyzed, which expresses itself in terms of exclusion or disregard of non-Western views,
or in their assimilation without a reconceptualization of
mental life. It is assumed that Western psychological conceptualizations are superior in
this type of ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism as a Form of Intuition in Psychology -
Thomas Teo, Angela R. Febbraro
The authors conduct two empirical studies. Using data from the United States, South Korea, and India, they explore six hypotheses. The authors identify consumer variables that may mediate consumers' unfavorable attitudes toward foreign advertisements and products derived by consumer ethnocentrism. The authors find that consumer ethnocentrism dampens consumers' online consumption activities on a foreign Web site. The authors find that marketers' e-mail communications to foreign consumers mediate consumer ethnocentrism in online environments. Consumer Ethnocentrism Offline and Online: The Mediating Role of Marketing Efforts and Personality Traits in the United States, South Korea, and India - Hyokjin Kwak and Trina Larsen of Drexel University, Anupam Jaju of George Mason University
Approach to examine the preference patterns of U.K. consumers for domestic products and those originating from specific foreign countries for eight product categories. Variability in preferences is linked to consumer ethnocentrism. Domestic Country Bias, Country-of-Origin Effects, and Consumer Ethnocentrism: A Multidimensional Unfolding Approach - George Balabanis, Adamantios Diamantopoulos.
The disturbing news is the persistent vitality of ethnocentrism, also known as nationalism and tribalism. The article draws on William James's "Moral Equivalent for War" in considering implications for social policy. - Nationalism, Ethnocentrism, and the New World Order - M. Brewster Smith - Board of Studies in Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz.