Functionalism is often referred to as consensus theory because it doesnt address the issue of conflict in society, rather it projects an ideal picture of harmonious social relationships.
It emerged in Europe in the 19th century as a response to what was perceived as a crisis of social order. This crisis seemed to be the result of two developments.
The emergence of a new industrial society with its subsequent loss of community poor working conditions, increase in crime, growth of housing slums, poverty etc.
The French revolution which suggested ideals of equality, happiness and freedom of the individual.
These historical conditions which were seen to approximate a crisis of economic and political order thus gave rise to a very conservative type of sociology which reflects a concern with the need for social order and integration. This is necessary if the social and economic crisis was to be overcome and controlled.
Main ideas in Functionalism - The starting point of all Functionalism is that all societies have certain basic needs - Functional requirements which must be met if a society is to survive. Functionalists are therefore concerned with the contribution the various parts of a society make towards those needs. All Functionalism is concerned with the basic need and desirability for social order and stability to prevail in society.
Explaining Social Order - In explaining the basis of social
order in societies the starting point for Functionalists is to look at whole societies and
not the individual; they explore the ways in which the various parts which make up a
society function to maintain social order.
Talcott Parsons and Education