Sociology Index

GENOCIDE

Genocide is systematic killing of an entire ethnic community. Genocide may not be sudden or immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation. Genocide is a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups. The objectives of genocide are the disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups.

Cultural genocide implies the process of undermining, suppressing, and ultimately eliminating native cultures. Cultural genocide implies the process of undermining, suppressing, and ultimately eliminating native cultures. Genocide: The single word has become key to Moscow’s accusations against the Ukrainian government.

Democide is murder by government including genocide, mass murder and politicide. France played a significant role in enabling a foreseeable genocide, according to a Rwandan government report, which accuses France of arming, advising and training the Hutu-led Rwandan government as it orchestrated the murder of some 800,000 Tutsi people. In Uttar Pradesh, India, the Allahabad high court said the authorities responsible for procurement and supply of the oxygen are committing criminal acts that are "not less than a genocide."

The primary factor of twentieth century genocide is colonialism because the nature of colonialism allowed the concepts of retribution, postcolonial nation building, mass violence and prejudice against a specific community to develop and these are all instrumental in twentieth century genocide. - By Mya Badhan, New Histories, The free online History magazine.

History is replete with genocides:

From Selk'nam genocide during the second half of the 19th to the early 20th century, to genocides by ISIL. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) is recognized by the United Nations as the perpetrator of a genocide of Yazidis in Sinjar, Iraq.

Selk'nam genocide (1890s to 1900s), of indigenous tribes populating the Tierra del Fuego in South America,

Herero and Namaqua Genocide (1904), the first genocide of the 20th century, waged by the German Empire against the Ovaherero, the Nama, and the San in German South West Africa (now Namibia).

Greek genocide (1914), was the systematic genocide of the Christian Ottoman Greek population from its historic homeland in Anatolia during World War I.

Assyrian genocide (1914), was the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.

Armenian genocide (1915), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the systematic mass murder and expulsion of 1.5 million ethnic Armenians carried out in Turkey and adjoining regions by the Ottoman government between 1914 and 1923.

Holodomor (1932), also known as the Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, the Terror-Famine and the Great Famine or the Ukrainian Genocide of 1932–33, was a famine in Soviet Ukraine from 1932 to 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians.

Polish genocide(s) by the Soviet Union (1937), took place within the September 1, 1939, boundaries of Poland, which ceased to exist as a territorial entity after the German and Soviet invasion of Poland.

Great Purge Era (1937), was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union that occurred from 1936 to 1938.

Katyn massacre (1940), mass execution of Polish military officers by the Soviet Union during World War II.
Aardakh (1944-48), was the Soviet forced transfer of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia on February 23, 1944, during World War II.

Nazi Holocaust and genocide (1941–44), the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women, and children and millions of others by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II.

Genocidal massacres during the Partition of India (1947) was one of the most violent yet significant events in South Asian history in the 20th Century.

Bangladesh genocide (1971), during the Bangladesh War for Liberation, members of the Pakistani military and supporting Islamist militias from Jamaat-e-Islami killed between 300,000 and 3,000,000 people and raped between 200,000 and 400,000 Bengali women, according to Bangladeshi and Indian sources, in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape.

Burundian genocides (1972 & 1993), mass killings of Tutsis by the majority-Hutu populace in Burundi are both described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 1996.

East Timorese genocide (1974), state terrorism by the Indonesian New Order government during the US-backed Indonesian invasion and occupation of East Timor.

Cambodian genocide (1975), was the systematic persecution and killing of Cambodians by the Khmer Rouge under the leadership of Pol Pot, who radically pushed Cambodia towards communism.

Guatemalan genocide (1981), was the massacre of Maya civilians during the Guatemalan military government's counterinsurgency operations.

Ba'athist genocide against Kurdish peoples (1986), led by Ali Hassan al-Majid, on the orders of President Saddam Hussein, against Iraqi Kurdistan in northern Iraq during the final stages of the Iran–Iraq War.

Rwandan Genocide (1994), was a mass slaughter of Tutsi, Twa, and moderate Hutu in Rwanda, which took place between 7 April and 15 July 1994 during the Rwandan Civil War.

Bosnian genocide (1992), refers to either the Srebrenica massacre or the wider crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing throughout areas controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) during the Bosnian War of 1992.

Criminology and the Holocaust: Xenophobia, Evolution, and Genocide 
Augustine Brannigan. Modern theories of crime and delinquency tend to be individualistic in their level of analysis and tend to focus on consensus crimes. The phenomenon of ethnic genocide is virtually impossible to examine within such parameters. This article reviews the evidence from the new historiographies and proposes a theory of genocide based on xenophobia developed in recent accounts of evolutionary psychology.

Anthropology and Genocide in the Balkans 
Thomas Cushman, Wellesley College. This article examines scholarly discourse on the wars in the former Yugoslavia. It focuses on relativistic arguments put forward by anthropologists and shows how such accounts mask and elide central historical realities of the conflict.


Genocide in the African Diaspora 
United States, Brazil, and the Need for a Holistic Research and Political Method.
J. H. Costa Vargas. Inspired by the multidimensional concept of genocide suggested by Patterson and his collaborators in 1951, I advance an argument for the necessity of coming to terms with the deadly, often state- and society-sanctioned, yet seldom overt contemporary campaigns against peoples of African descent. Approached from various angles, genocide allows us to understand seemingly disparate phenomena as they relate to each other, contributing to the continued oppression and death of Black people in Africa and its diaspora.

Genocide and the Social Production of Immorality 
RUTH JAMIESON. This article is an exploration of two different instances of genocide of the late 20th century, the mass rape of women in Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1992 (in which women constituted the primary victims) and the genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda in 1994 (in which women were active perpetrators). The connected objectives of the article are, first, to consider the relationship between genocide and other forms of social exclusion and, second, to explore the limits of some forms of criminological commonsense, for example in the field of victimology, and these contemporary instances of genocide.

Genocide or a Failure to Gel? Racism, History and Nationalism in Australian Talk - MARTHA AUGOUSTINOS, KEITH TUFFIN, MARK RAPLEY. In a context of wide media attention to public debates about the social, political and epistemic entitlements of different groups within Australian society, an understanding of the rhetorical resources and the discursive work doen by differing constructions of `race', has become an important local issue.

The First Genocide: Carthage, 146 BC - Ben Kiernan. Some features of the ideology motivating the Roman destruction of Carthage in 146 BC have surprisingly modern echoes in 20th-century genocides. Racial, religious or cultural prejudices, gender and other social hierarchies, territorial expansionism, and an idealization of cultivation all characterize the thinking of Cato the Censor, like that of more recent perpetrators.

Women, Genocide, and Memory 
The Ethics of Feminist Ethnography in Holocaust Research
 
Janet Liebman Jacobs, University of Colorado. This article explores the ethical dilemmas of doing a feminist ethnography of gender and Holocaust memory. She identified three sources of methodological tension that developed during the research process: Role conflicts in the research setting, gender selectivity in studies of ethnic and racial violence, and the sexual objectification of women in academic discourse on violence and genocide.

The 'Stolen Generations' and Cultural Genocide 
The Forced Removal of Australian Indigenous Children from their Families and its Implications for the Sociology of Childhood. 

ROBERT VAN KRIEKEN. From around the turn of 20th century up to the 1970s, Australian government authorities assumed legal guardianship of all Indigenous children and removed large numbers of them from their families in order to 'assimilate' them into European society and culture. This policy has been described as 'cultural genocide', even though at the time it was presented by state and church authorities as being `in the best interests' of Aboriginal children.

Dialogue Toward Agenocide: Encountering the Other in the Context of Genocide - Samson Munn. What modes of interaction exist between historically heinous human behavior, one’s relationship to such history, one’s identity and one’s responses to counter such behavior and its effects? Of many paths to take and levers to use to engender peace and healing, a vital element constitutes reciprocally respectful efforts at societal bridging.

Paradigms of Genocide: The Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide, and Contemporary Mass Destructions - ROBERT MELSON. When confronted with mass death and forced deportations, the contemporary world community has often reached for the Holocaust as a paradigmatic case of genocide in order both to make sense of and to condemn current events. This article suggests that the Armenian Genocide sets a more accurate precedent than the Holocaust for current mass disasters, especially such as those in Nigeria and in the former Yugoslavia, which are the products of nationalism. Conversely, the Holocaust is a prototype for genocidal movements that transcend nationalism and are motivated by ideologies that have global scope.

Ethnic Conflict and Genocide: Reflections on Ethnic Cleansing in the Former Yugoslavia - DAMIR MIRKOVI.
Yugoslav society, held together for 45 years by Communists, began to disintegrate in the 1980s. Disintegrative processes have brought in their wake the rise of nationalism as the younger generations, led by a new privileged class of technobureaucrats, could not ride any more on the worn-out ideology of self-managing socialism. In fact, it is a Balkan tradition to use genocide in order to create pure ethnic territories. This article explores the concept of ethnic cleansing in its broader meaning as cultural genocide or ethnocide and in its narrower connotation as genocidal annihilation of group members.

Impartiality and evil - A reconsideration provoked by genocide in Bosnia 
Arne Johan Vetlesen. Confronted with Adolf Eichmann, evildoer par excellence, Hannah Arendt sought in vain for any 'depth' to the evil he had wrought. How is the philosopher to approach evil ? Is the celebrated criterion of impartiality ill-equipped to guide judgment when its object is evil - as exhibited, for instance, in the recent genocide in Bosnia? This essay questions the ability of the neutral 'third party' to respond adequately to evil from a standpoint of avowed impartiality.

Democracy, Power, Genocide, and Mass Murder 
R. J. Rummel. From 1900 to 1987, state, quasi-state, and stateless groups have killed in democide (genocide, massacres, extrajudicial executions, and the like) nearly 170,000,000 people. Case studies and quantitative analysis show that ethnic, racial, and religious diversity, economic development, levels of education, and cultural differences do not account for this killing.

Testing the Double-Genocide Thesis for Central and Southern Rwanda 
Philip Verwimp. Results of a research project with household-level data on the demographic impact of genocide and civil war in Rwanda are reported. The survey includes demographic and criminological data on 352 peasant households that were part of a large household survey project before the genocide. The absolute number of Hutu killed in the sample is half of the number of Tutsi killed.

Genocide: A Case for the Responsibility of the Bystander 
Arne Johan Vetlesen, Department of Philosophy, University of Oslo. In this article, the case of Bosnia is used to raise important theoretical and practical questions concerning the role of third parties in preventing and punishing genocide.

Gender, Genocide, and Ethnicity
The Legacies of Older Armenian American Mothers. Margaret M. Manoogian, Ohio University, Athens.
Alexis J. Walker, Leslie N. Richards, Oregon State University, Corvallis. Women use legacies to help family members articulate family identity, learn family history, and provide succeeding generations with information about family culture. Mothers passed on legacies that included family stories, rituals/activities, and possessions. Because of multiple losses during the Armenian Genocide, they emphasized legacies that symbolized connection to family, underscored family cohesion, and accentuated ethnic identity.

The Demographics of Genocide: Refugees and Territorial Loss in the Mass Murder of European Jewry - Manus I. Midlarsky. This study seeks to distinguish between instances where genocide occurred and others where it might have been expected to occur but did not. Four analytic perspectives based on emotional reactions, class envy, prospect theory, and territoriality indicate the critical importance of loss. Italy was on a genocidal path just prior to the German occupation.

 

Genocide as Transgression 
Dan Stone, ROYAL HOLLOWAY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, UK. The origins of genocide have been sought by scholars in many areas of human experience: politics, religion, culture, economics, demography, ideology. All these of course are valid explanations, and go a long way to getting to grips with the objective conditions surrounding genocide. I argue that prior to and during any act of genocide there occurs a heightening of community feeling, to the point at which this ecstatic sense of belonging permits, indeed demands, a normally forbidden act of transgression in order to ‘safeguard’ the community by killing the designated ‘threatening’ group.