Call it globalization, mondialisation,
globalizacion or Globalisierung
Globalization Abstracts, Bibliography, Syllabus, Globalization
The globalization process is seen as driven by
the growth of international capitalism and involving the
transformation of the culture and social structures of
non-capitalist and pre-industrial societies.
Globalization is marked by the expansion of the
size and power of multinational corporations.
A world-wide process of the internationalization of communication, trade, human resource
and economic organization.
The globalization process in the economic sphere
can be seen in international trade agreements and the enormous increase in the volume of
international trade and growing economic interdependency between countries.
Most people today refer to the time in which we live as the
age of globalization. I prefer the term interdependence, because it makes it clear that
the nature of the world today and our connections are far more than economic, and because
it makes it clear that the consequences of those relationships can be both negative and
positive. Interdependence simply means we cannot escape each other. We have to recognize
that we cannot have a global economic system without building a global social system. -
William J. Clinton
Challenges to Globalization
The radical transformation of economic structures and the
metamorphosis or alterations of geo-political alignments has not only created new
opportunities, but has also brought in new challenges on various fronts.
Are the politicization of "traditional" identities and
the resurgence of nationalism a response to Western culture
and the increasing dominance of liberal capitalism?
How has rapid and often unregulated economic transformation
exacerbated ethnic and social tensions?
If many of these reactions have been defensive in nature, and are
often at odds with democratic principles, neo-liberalism is being increasingly contested
by popular democratic forces, including social movements and new transnational networks of
civil society organizations. These movements have challenged neo-liberal policy
prescriptions and their modes of implementation as anti-democratic and harmful to the
The dismantling of the welfare state in the West and the
retrenchment of the state and public services in the developing world have been fiercely
resisted. Market forces are as such increasingly at odd with democratization, especially
in the developing world.
The empowerment of subordinate groups and the increasing vibrancy
of civil society that has accompanied democratic transitions has also, in many instances,
triggered demands for more substantive outcomes, including greater equity and new
challenges to the dominance of market forces.
Broad definitions of 'globalization'.
For Scholte, globalization is 'a transformation of social geography
marked by the growth of supraterritorial spaces', though he recognizes that
'territoriality and supraterritoriality coexist in
Globalization as Internationalization. Globalization, viewed 'as simply another adjective
to describe cross-border relations between countries'. It describes the growth in
international exchange and interdependence. With growing flows of trade and capital
investment there is the possibility of moving beyond an inter-national economy, to a
'stronger' version - the globalized economy in which, 'distinct national economies are
subsumed and rearticulated into the system by international processes and transactions'
(Hirst and Peters 1996: 8 and 10).
Globalization as Liberalization. In this broad set of definitions, 'globalization' refers
to 'a process of removing government-imposed restrictions on movements between countries
in order to create an "open", "borderless" world economy' (Scholte
Globalization as Universalization. In this use, 'global' is used in the sense of being
'worldwide' and 'globalization' is 'the process of spreading various objects and
experiences to people at all corners of the earth'.
Globalization as Westernization or Modernization. Here 'globalization' is understood as a
dynamic, 'whereby the social structures of modernity (capitalism,
rationalism, industrialism, bureaucratism) are spread the
Globalization as Deterritorialization (or as the spread of supraterritoriality). Here
'globalization' entails a 'reconfiguration of geography, so that social space is no longer
wholly mapped in terms of territorial places, territorial distances and territorial
borders. Anthony Giddens' has thus defined globalization as ' the intensification of
worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local
happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa. (Giddens 1990:
64). David Held et al (1999: 16) define globalization as a ' process (or set of processes)
which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and
transactions - assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impact -
generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows and networks of activity'.
Globalization as Deterritorialization, offers a clear and specific definition of
globalization. The notion of supraterritoriality (or trans-world or trans-border
relations), Scholte argues, provides a way into appreciating what is global about
There is no need to replace the 'internationalization' by 'globalization' where it refers
to a growth in interaction and interdependence between people in different countries. This
process of internationalization has been going for centuries - and it adds nothing
theoretically to describe it as globalization.
To describe the process of breaking down regulatory and other barriers to trade as
globalization is similarly flawed. 'The liberal discourse of "free" trade is
quite adequate to convey these ideas' (Scholte 2000: 45).
The notion of globalization as universalization also fails to provide new insight. The
move towards universalization is a long-running one - and so little or nothing is added by
substituting the notion of globalization.
The understanding of globalization as westernization has developed particularly in the
context of neocolonialism and post-colonial imperialism. It is, again, difficult to see
what advance the notion of globalization provides as against the discourse of colonialism,
imperialism and 'modernization'.
Important new insight can, however, be gained from approaching globalization as the growth
of 'supraterritorial' or transworld relations between people. It allows for us to explore
deep-seated changes in the way that we understand and experience social space.
The proliferation and spread of supraterritorial... connections brings an end to what
could be called 'territorialism', that is a situation where social geography is entirely
territorial. Although... territory still matters very much in our globalizing world, it no
longer constitutes the whole of our geography. (Scholte 2000: 46)
The first four approaches are all compatible with territorialism, the fifth is not. Within
a territorial orientation 'place' is identified primarily with regard to territorial
location. However, we have witnessed a fundamental change. There has been a massive growth
in social connections that are unhooked in significant ways from territory.
Books On Globalization
Regionalism and Economic Interdependence Book by Filippo di Mauro, Stéphane Dees, Warwick J. McKibbin (Editors)
Geopolitics of American Insecurity: Terror, Power and Foreign Policy (PRIO New Security
Studies) Book by Francois Debrix (Author)
Freedom and the Media after Communism: The Past as Future Birgit Beumers
Migrant Sex Workers: From Modernization to Globalization Book by Kaoru Aoyama
Business: The Challenges of Globalization (5th Ed) (My Management Lab Series) Book by John J. Wild, Kenneth L. Wild, Jerry C.Y. Han (Authors)
in Question Book by Paul Hirst, Grahame Thompson, Simon Bromley.
and Global Restructuring: Sightings, Sites and Resistances by Marian Marchand
Globalization and Social Movements: Islamism, Feminism, and
the Global Justice Movement by Valentine M. Moghadam
China and Globalization: The Social, Economic and Political
Transformation of Chinese Society (Global Realities) by Doug Guthrie
Network Power: The Social Dynamics of Globalization by David
Words, Worlds, and Material Girls: Language, Gender,
Globalization (Language, Power and Social Process) by Bonnie S. Mcelhinny
Globalization and International Social Work (Contemporary
Social Work Studies) by Malcolm Payne and Gurid Aga Askeland
Globalization: The Transformation of Social Worlds (Wadsworth
Sociology Reader Series) by D. Stanley Eitzen and Maxine Baca Zinn
The Anthropology of Globalization: A Reader (Blackwell Readers
in Anthropology) by Jonathan Xavier Inda and Renato Rosaldo
The Globalization and Development Reader: Perspectives on
Development and Global Change J. Timmons Roberts, Amy Bellone Hite
and Social Theory
Migration : Globalization's Last Frontier
Cultural Identities, And Media Representations
Globalization and Social Change
"American" Is Globalization
Models, Globalization and Economies
Society, Globalization and Political Change in Asia
New Geography of Global Income Inequality
in Antiquity: Globalization as a Long-Term Historical Process
and Ethnic Conflict : Class, State, and Nation in the Age of Globalization
Discipline : Discourse, Governance and Globalization
Nature : Globalization and Environmental Culture in China and Taiwan
and Globalization: The Social, Economic and Political Transformation of Chinese Society
and Egalitarian Redistribution
Globalization and Inequality
Theories of Globalization