Horizontal integration is the expansion of a corporation to include other previously competitive enterprises within the same sector of goods or service production. Lateral Integration is an alternative term for horizontal integration. Horizontal integration takes place when one automobile company takes over another automobile company or one telecom company takes over another telecom company. The process of horizontal integration is characteristic of capitalism and capitalist economies which have a marked tendency for sectoral concentration into fewer and fewer enterprises and business conglomerates. Horizontal integration in marketing is much more common than horizontal integration in production.
Vertical Integration is the degree to which a firm owns its upstream suppliers and also its downstream buyers. Vertical integration is the degree to which a firm owns its upstream suppliers and its downstream buyers.
Horizontal integration is a strategy used by a business or corporation that seeks to sell a type of product in numerous markets. Horizontal integration gets this market coverage, by creating several small subsidiary companies. Each markets the product to a different market segment or to a different geographical area. This is sometimes referred to as the horizontal integration of marketing.
The horizontal integration of production exists when a firm has plants in several locations producing similar products. Where the products of both firms are similar, it is a merger of competitors. Where all producers of a good or service in a market merge, it is the creation of a monopoly. If there are only a few competitors, it is termed an oligopoly.
Vertical integration is the degree to which a firm owns its upstream suppliers and its downstream buyers. A monopoly produced through vertical integration is called a vertical monopoly. It might be more appropriate to speak of this as some form of cartel.
Medellin and the Horizontal Integration of International Human Rights Law in US Courts - McGuinness, Margaret. Abstract: Medellin v. Dretke and its antecedent cases reflect the success of horizontal transnational networks in bringing international law home to adjudication of death penalty cases in the United States.
Horizontal Integration in
Horizontal Integration in Knowledge Management can be defined as the distribution of knowledge across diverse business units. A lesson learned captured by the manufacturing group then used by someone in technical support to help solve a problem would be an example of Horizontal Integration. A corporation’s most valuable assets are its workforce and information assets. Horizontal Integration improves the value of both assets by better educating the workforce and improving the usage, that is, value of information.
Horizontal Integration and Relational Contracting: An Application to Local Public Services - Claudine Desrieux, Eshien Chong, Stephane Saussier. Abstract: Legal frameworks, especially in Europe, encourage private participation and competition in the management of public services. However, many local public authorities concentrate the various services they have in charge in the hands of a single operator, leading to horizontal integration which a priori minimizes the positive effects of competition. The following tries to understand why vertical disintegration is regularly combined with horizontal integration.