Sociology Index

JUVENILIZATION OF POVERTY

Juvenilization of poverty is closely linked to the feminization of poverty. The terms 'juvenilization of poverty' and 'feminization of poverty' have been highly contested. The term 'Juvenilization of Poverty' is used to describe child poverty and the increase in both relative and absolute measures of poverty among children. Juvenilization of poverty is the processes by which children are at a higher risk for being poor, suffer long-term negative effects due to physical, mental, and psychological deprivation. Juvenilization of poverty is a term used to describe children disproportionately affected by systemic issues that perpetuate poverty.

The term 'juvenilization of poverty' was coined to give name to the growing understanding that poverty was increasingly and systematically borne by children. The term 'juvenilization of poverty' elucidates how children are at a disproportionate risk of living in poverty even in times of economic gain. Juvenilization of poverty requires social workers to place themselves in advocacy roles and to focus on poverty as a central practice concern.

Mary Jo Bane and David Ellwood, in "One Fifth of The Nation's Children: Why Are They Poor?". Science. 245 (4922), linked changes in the labor market and declining male wages to rising juvenilization of poverty trends, leading to investigations of the connections between work, family structures, social services spending, and childhood welfare. Social scientists frequently point to changes in family structure as one of the primary forces driving juvenile poverty. Of particular note are the increasing number of children living in unmarried or single-mother households, and this factor is one of the reasons why the juvenilization of poverty is so closely linked to discussions of female poverty. McLanahan, Sara; Irwin Garfinkel (1986). Single Mothers and Their Children: A New American Dilemma. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

The term 'juvenilization of poverty' connotes not just the mere existence of child poverty but the increase in both relative and absolute measures of poverty among children as compared to both other vulnerable groups and the population at large. Studies of the juvenilization of poverty attempts to explain the methodical ways in which children are systematically disenfranchised by institutions, government welfare spending, and opportunities for health and wellness. Research on the juvenilization of poverty shows overall trends in family structures, parental work, and economic supports for children and families.

The terms, "juvenilization of poverty" and "feminization of poverty" have been contested in political and academic discourse. Juvenilization of poverty is the ways in which children are disenfranchised by institutions, government welfare spending, and opportunities for health and wellness. Some reports, such as the one published in late October 2014 by the Foundation FOESSA, alert us about the juvenilization of poverty: there is a 30% probability of exclusion in the population between 18 and 29 years old. There are multiple factors from this process: youth unemployment, over-representation of youth in temporary contracts, the relationship between housing prices and wages for young people, less protection of the welfare state in intergenerational terms.

FEMINIZATION AND JUVENILIZATION OF POVERTY: Trends, Relative Risks, Causes, and Consequences - Suzanne M. Bianchi. Abstract: Reviews trends in feminization of poverty and juvenilization of poverty showing that the relative risks of poverty increased for women in the 1970s but decreased for working-age women in the early 1980s. Relative risks of poverty increased for children between the 1970s and 1990s particularly in comparison with the elderly. The decline in manufacturing employment and “family wage” jobs for men increased the likelihood that less-educated men fell into poverty in the early 1980s. These two factors combined to halt the feminization of poverty among the working-age population. This tended to concentrate poverty in mother-child families. Public transfers of income, especially Social Security, were far more effective in alleviating poverty among the elderly than among children, a factor dramatically increasing the juvenilization of poverty after 1970.

The juvenilization of poverty in the 1980s - Elizabeth A. Segal. This article analyzes the factors that caused the economic well-being of children in the United States to deteriorate during the 1980s. The poverty rate for children decreased through the late 1960s and the 1970s but rose during the 1980s. Young families and female-headed families were hit hardest by structural economic changes, contributing to the rise in child poverty. In addition, although more children became poor, social services provision did not increase and in many instances was cut back.