Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875)
was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. Carl Jung was a theoretical
psychologist and practicing clinician for most of his life. Karl Jung's unconscious, as
opposed to Sigmund Freud's, serves a very positive role:
the engine of the collective unconscious essential to human society and culture.
Carl Jung's theory of the self
begins by asserting the key concepts - introversion and extraversion,
and the relationship between these two components - one is dominant and the other
subordinate. Karl Jung's theory assumes that the dominant characteristic will be displayed
in behaviour and the subordinate one in our dreams or unconscious.
The content of dreams can be
explained by bringing Karl Jung's model to the inquiry.
Carl Jung's concept of the
collective unconscious has often been misunderstood. In order to understand this concept,
it is essential to understand his idea of the archetype, something typically foreign to
the highly rational, scientifically-oriented Western mind.
Karl Jung collaborated with
Sigmund Freud in the development of the psychoanalytic theory of personality, though Karl Jung later divorced
himself from Freud's viewpoint because of its preoccupation with sexuality as the
determinant of personality.
Karl Jung originated the concept
of introvert and extravert personality, and of the four psychological functions of
sensation, intuition, thinking, and feeling.
In Karl Jung's major work, The
Psychology of the Unconscious (1912), he proposed the existence of a collective
unconscious, which he combined with a theory of archetypes for studying the history and
psychology of religion.
Karl Jung developed a
distinctive tradition within psychoanalysis, known as
analytical psychology, that focused on the idea that all humans share in a collective
unconscious mind that is exhibited in the classic forms - or archetypes- of different
cultures and in the thoughts, experiences and behaviour of individuals.
Karl Jung's primary disagreement
with Freud stemmed from their differing concepts of the unconscious. Jung saw Freud's
theory of the unconscious as incomplete and unnecessarily negative. Freud conceived the
unconscious solely as a repository of repressed emotions and desires. Carl Jung believed
that the unconscious also had a creative capacity. The collective unconscious of
archetypes and images which made up the human psyche was processed and renewed within the
unconscious. Carl Jung's unconscious is the engine of the collective unconscious essential
to human society and culture.
Carl Jung and the Development
of Contemporary Paganism
Vivianne Crowley, Department of Pastoral Studies, Heythrop College, University of London
Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), founder of analytical psychology, originated a system of
Jungian analysis that has become one of the world's most widely known psychotherapeutic
schools. Early biographies of Carl Jung were hagiographies poured from the pens of
enthusiastic, devoted and grateful disciples. Professional biographers evaluated Carl Jung
more objectively and sometimes with little understanding of or sympathy with his aims and
methods. Many Jungian terms - extraversion, introversion, shadow, anima, animus,
synchronicity - have entered intellectual and popular discourse.
Jung has entered public consciousness not only as a psychiatrist turned psychotherapist
but also as a cultural commentator and quasi-mystic. While Carl Jung's early writings were
based on his psychiatric work, later work represents a sweep through the world's major
religious traditions and many of its esoteric ones. Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam,
Christianity, Gnosticism, alchemy and paranormal phenomena pass under Jung's scrutinizing
gaze and are dissected not for their religious or metaphysical truths, in which Jung
professed himself uninterested, but for their psychological meaning: how could they help
human beings live in contemporary society?
Karl Jung was born into an era in which science was disproving the literal truth of
religious teachings and people were seeking new ways of interpreting them. One route lay
through 'scientifically' proving the existence of phenomena promised by religions,
particularly life after death. The late nineteenth century was the era of spiritualism and
psychical research. Jung's doctoral dissertation was not medical research but the
investigation of a medium, his maternal cousin, Hélène Preiswerk. Another route, which
Jung condemned, was to seek inspiration from the East. A third route was to reinterpret
religion as symbolic, an enterprise Jung embraced enthusiastically in The Psychology of
the Unconscious and one that caused a final break with Karl Jung's would-be mentor Sigmund
Freud. Religious symbols, their interpretation, reinterpretation and revivification became
the major focus of Jung's later written work. Karl Jung's religious writings have produced
a vast volume of secondary literature. Christians, Buddhists, Hindus and Pagans find
inspiration in Jung and claim him as their own.
As yet, other than Noll's hostile and emotive work, there has been little examination of
Karl Jung's influence on the development of contemporary Paganism. This paper examines
Jungian influences on Wicca, Goddess spirituality and other contemporary Paganisms. It
will argue that Karl Jung's ideas, while extensive and important, have been influential
because they draw on earlier esotericism and hermeticism, themselves foundation stones of
contemporary Pagan belief and practice.
Tina Keller's analyses with
C. G. Jung and Toni Wolff, 1915-1928
Wendy Swan - Journal of Analytical Psychology, Volume 51 Page 493 - September 2006
Abstract: This historical essay documents the clinical practices of C. G. Jung and Toni
Wolff with their analysand Tina Keller, a Swiss physician and psychotherapist, during the
formative years of analytical psychology (1915-1928). The topic is investigated through an
examination of primary documents, largely unpublished, in English and German, based on
Keller's autobiographical writings. It presents biographical information on Keller's life
and details of her analyses with Jung and Wolff, emphasizing the technique of active
imagination and describing the clinical practices of Jung and Wolff in Keller's analyses.
Critique of Carl Jung by Alan
Jung's philosophical position
Use of terms
Individuation and the self
Jung fiddles the evidence
What is the "collective unconscious"?
Dreaming your life away
Carl Jung and race
Political and social views
Karl Jung, war and Nazis
Carl Jung and sexism
Karl Jung and the East
Carl Jung and gnosticism
The work of Carl Jung has produced a range of reactions: from fervent supporters who think
he has the answers (Edinger) to some who say that he underwent a Satanic initiation
(Morrison, p.259).I would like to explore Jung's pivotal ideas and assess the value of his
system. A starting point is to investigate his philosophical position and his theory of
knowledge. He states:
"...we are absolutely incapable of saying how the world is constituted in itself -
and always shall be, since we are obliged to convert physical events into psychic
processes as soon as we want to say anything about knowledge. But who can guarantee that
this conversion produces anything like an adequate "objective" picture of the
world? That could only be if the physical event were also a psychic one. But a great
distance still seems to separate us from such an assertion. Till then, we must for better
or worse content ourselves with the assumption that the psyche supplies those images and
forms which alone make knowledge of objects possible." (C W 9.i,par.116).
Interpretation of the Near-Death Experience: An Unnecessary Mystification, L. Stafford
Betty, California State University, Bakersfield - apt.allenpress.com
ABSTRACT: In his long essay on synchronicity, Carl Jung enlisted the help of a relatively
complete but little known near-death experience (NDE) to illustrate his thesis. This NDE
was not the famous one he himself had in 1944, but one related to him by a patient. It
contained all four of Bruce Greyson's NDE components, most notably the paranormal. Jung
regarded the patient's experience as a good example of synchronicity, by which he meant
the simultaneous occurrence of a certain psychic state with one or more external
events. What is remarkable, and problematical, about his view of synchronicity was
that it was acausal. I develop and defend an alternative epistemology involving causality:
While paranormal knowledge is hard to explain, there is no good reason to remove it from
cause-and-effect discourse. I close by speculating why Jung chose to conceive of
sychronicity in a manner so mystifying.
The Power of Music: A Jungian
ANNE T. MARSHMAN, Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
ABSTRACT: This paper explores Carl Jungs psychological theory of artistic creation
and its inherent aesthetic implications regarding the role and nature of music. Though it
was not Jungs intention to formulate a philosophic position towards art, a musical
aesthetic has been extrapolated from his writings and is presented below. Modern music
therapy, for example, the Bonny method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) and certain
models of improvisational music therapy, have already demonstrated the practical value of
marrying Jungian analytical psychology with music (Austin, 1991; Clark, 1991; Hitchcock,
1987; Wärja, 1994). The Jungian musical aesthetic revealed here offers a theoretical
explanation, in the language of analytical psychology, for why music is such a powerful
therapeutic agent. It also bestows on music a significance and relevance that extends
beyond the individual to the whole of society.