Sociology Index


Karl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. Karl Jung was a theoretical psychologist and practicing clinician for most of his life. Karl Jung's unconscious, as opposed to Sigmund Freud's, serves a very positive role: the engine of the collective unconscious essential to human society and culture. Carl Gustav Jung's theory of the self begins by asserting the key concepts of introversion and extraversion, and the relationship between these two components, one is dominant and the other subordinate. Karl Jung's theory assumes that the dominant characteristic will be displayed in behavior and the subordinate one in our dreams or unconscious. The content of dreams can be explained by bringing Karl Jung's model to the inquiry.

Karl Jung developed a distinctive tradition within psychoanalysis, known as analytical psychology, that focused on the idea that all humans share in a collective unconscious mind that is exhibited in the classic forms - or archetypes- of different cultures and in the thoughts, experiences and behaviour of individuals.

Carl Gustav Jung's concept of the collective unconscious has often been misunderstood. In order to understand this concept, it is essential to understand his idea of the archetype, something typically foreign to the highly rational, scientifically-oriented Western mind. Karl Jung collaborated with Sigmund Freud in the development of the psychoanalytic theory of personality, though Karl Jung later divorced himself from Freud's viewpoint because of its preoccupation with sexuality as the determinant of personality.

Carl Gustav Jung originated the concept of introvert and extravert personality, and of the four psychological functions of sensation, intuition, thinking, and feeling. In Karl Jung's major work, The Psychology of the Unconscious (1912), he proposed the existence of a collective unconscious, which he combined with a theory of archetypes for studying the history and psychology of religion.

Karl Jung's primary disagreement with Freud stemmed from their differing concepts of the unconscious. Jung saw Freud's theory of the unconscious as incomplete and unnecessarily negative. Freud conceived the unconscious solely as a repository of repressed emotions and desires. Early biographies of Carl Jung were hagiographies poured from the pens of enthusiastic, devoted and grateful disciples. Carl Jung believed that the unconscious also had a creative capacity. The collective unconscious of archetypes and images which made up the human psyche was processed and renewed within the unconscious. Carl Jung's unconscious is the engine of the collective unconscious essential to human society and culture.

Carl Jung and the Development of Contemporary Paganism 
Vivianne Crowley, Department of Pastoral Studies, Heythrop College, University of London
Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), founder of analytical psychology, originated a system of Jungian analysis that has become one of the world's most widely known psychotherapeutic schools. Professional biographers evaluated Carl Gustav Jung more objectively and sometimes with little understanding of or sympathy with his aims and methods. Many Jungian terms - extraversion, introversion, shadow, anima, animus, synchronicity - have entered intellectual and popular discourse.

Jung's Synchronistic Interpretation of the Near-Death Experience: An Unnecessary Mystification, L. Stafford Betty, California State University, Bakersfield.
ABSTRACT: In his long essay on synchronicity, Carl Jung enlisted the help of a relatively complete but little known near-death experience (NDE) to illustrate his thesis. This NDE was not the famous one he himself had in 1944, but one related to him by a patient. It contained all four of Bruce Greyson's NDE components, most notably the paranormal. Jung regarded the patient's experience as a good example of synchronicity, by which he meant “the simultaneous occurrence of a certain psychic state with one or more external events.”

Tina Keller's analyses with C. G. Jung and Toni Wolff, 1915-1928 
Wendy Swan - Journal of Analytical Psychology, Volume 51 Page 493 - September 2006
Abstract: This historical essay documents the clinical practices of C. G. Jung and Toni Wolff with their analysand Tina Keller, a Swiss physician and psychotherapist, during the formative years of analytical psychology (1915-1928). The topic is investigated through an examination of primary documents, largely unpublished, in English and German, based on Keller's autobiographical writings. It presents biographical information on Keller's life and details of her analyses with Jung and Wolff, emphasizing the technique of active imagination and describing the clinical practices of Jung and Wolff in Keller's analyses.

The Power of Music: A Jungian Aesthetic
ANNE T. MARSHMAN, Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
ABSTRACT: This paper explores Carl Jung’s psychological theory of artistic creation and its inherent aesthetic implications regarding the role and nature of music. Though it was not Jung’s intention to formulate a philosophic position towards art, a musical aesthetic has been extrapolated from his writings and is presented below. The Jungian musical aesthetic revealed here offers a theoretical explanation, in the language of analytical psychology, for why music is such a powerful therapeutic agent. It also bestows on music a significance and relevance that extends beyond the individual to the whole of society.