LOWER CLASS CULTURE
It has been argued by some that the lower class have
developed and transmit to their children, a different set of cultural values
and expectations. They argue further that lower class culture is a barrier to their
success in society. The lower class culture theory is
controversial and is opposed by situational theory, which locates the genesis of poverty
in economic and social structures of society rather
than in the value orientations of individuals or groups.
Used in this way lower class culture is associated with
the culture of poverty thesis -
The theory that certain groups and individuals tend to persist in a state of poverty
because they have distinct beliefs, values and ways of behaving that are incompatible with
More recently sociologists have rejected this emphasis on
values and argue that structural barriers create the conditions which might generate these
values and expectations. If this is so, the solution is to transform the structures and
not to blame the poor.
Walter Miller submits that delinquency is not rooted in
the rejection of middle class values; it stems from lower class culture, which has its own
value system. Gang norms are simply the adolescent expression of the lower class
culture in which the boys have grown up.
Strain theorists explain criminal behavior
as a result of the frustrations suffered by lower class individuals deprived of legitimate
means to reach their goals.
Oscar Lewis coined the term "culture of
poverty" to describe the lower-class culture of modern Mexico City.
Culture-of-poverty Thesis is similar to lower class
culture theory, where it has been argued that the lower class have developed and transmit
to their children, a different set of cultural values and expectations. It is also argued
that this culture is a barrier to their success in society.
Theories of Crime and Delinquency
Cohens delinquent subculture
According to Cohen, middle class values are different than
lower class values. Middle class values stress independence, success, academic
achievement, delayed gratification, control of aggression, and respect for property. Lower
class parents encourage different values in their children. In lower class families
ambition and planning must give way to pressing issues of the moment. They depend more on
others, and have more of a group orientation, watching each others backs.
In school, lower class children are bombarded with the same middle class values that
middle class children get in their home. However, these values seem foreign to lower class
students. In addition, the values and norms they have learned in
their homes actually present a barrier to success in school. The message lower class
students get from school is that they are inferior.
They can accept this message and accept their lower status, or they can adapt to the
values of the middle class and strive for middle class goals, or they can take the
delinquent solution: They can reject the assumption that middle class values are better
and turn middle class norms and values upside down. Members reward and esteem each other
for behaviors that attack the middle class values (vandalism, terrorizing good
kids, stealing just for fun).
The Big 5 Stages:
1. Lower class youth given different values in the home, that is, socialization but want middle class dream of success.
2. School merit system is biased toward middle class values, lower class start out
disadvantaged because they were not prepared with middle class values at home. Here lower
class youth experience status frustration.
3. Lower class youth start collective interaction, begin to hang out together because they
dont fit in with the mainstream of the school.
4. Collective reaction formation, since doors are
closed for them they go in the opposite direction of middle class values, they reject the
system (instead of feeling rejected by the system)
5. Form a delinquent subculture with anti-middle class value