Mass Communication And Mass Society
Mass Communication And Mass Society, Books
on Mass Communication
Introduction To Communication Theory -
Introduction To Mass Media -
of Mass Communication - Sociology 43, Syllabus
Theories of Mass Communication -
Department of Mass Communications and Center for New Media, Colorado State University -
Pueblo, Instructor: Samuel Ebersole, PhD
Application of information theories to mass communication problems. Nature of the
communication process in groups and between mass media and audiences. Contribution of
theoretical concepts to solving specific problems. (CSU-Pueblo Catalog)
The purpose of this course is to
explore the theoretical foundations of the media from a social scientific perspective. We
will trace the development of media theories following the four eras of mass communication
theory as defined by the textbook: mass society theories, limited-effects perspectives,
critical and cultural approaches, and meaning-making perspectives.
The develop a working knowledge
of theories that explain the world of mass media and users of the media. Understand the
historical development of the field of mass communication and its theoretical foundations.
Critically evaluate theories as applied to practical mass communication problems, e.g.,
media portrayals of sex and violence. Text: Baran, S. & Davis, D (2008). Mass
communication theory: Foundations, ferment, and future, 5th ed. Belmont: Wadsworth
Introduction To Mass Media -
Instructor: Mr. Billy M. Oliver, Assistant Professor
Description: Development of a critical perception of the mass communication process and
its results in both printed and electronic media. Applications of the ethics and codes of
journalism to the changing roles and forms of journalistic media.
Baran, S.J. (2006). Introduction to Mass Communication: Media
Literacy and Culture. (4th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Learning Outcomes and Specific Competencies
At the completion of the course, students will know the following:
1. The role ethics play in the mass media.
2. How books became the building blocks for the mass media.
3. The role of magazines in the mass media.
4. A brief history of newspapers and their role in mass media.
5. A basic understanding of information storage.
6. The impact of movies on mass media.
7. A brief history of radio.
8. How television evolved from radio and where it stands today.
9. An overview of journalism.
10. The importance of the mass media to public relations.
11. Advertising's role in mass media.
12. The basics of media research.
13. Mass media's effects on society and the individual.
14. How mass media functions in a political environment.
15. A brief history and overview of media law.
1. The changing communications media environment.
2. Theories of communication media.
3. The Evolution of the information society.
4. Economic issues in communication media.
5. communication media policy and ethics.
6. Globalization of communications media.
7. Print media.
8. Audio media.
9. Visual media.
10. Multichannel media.
11. The telephone industry.
12. The information services industry.
13. The computer industry.
14. Communication media in the work place.
15. The advertising industry.
16. The public relations industry.
17. Effects of mass media.
18. The social impacts of information technologies.
Survey of Mass Communication, Sociology 43,
Syllabus, 11:15-12:05 MWF, 427 Waterman - Prof. Thomas Streeter,
This course looks at the social role and importance of modern media of communication and
culture, from the book to the internet. It explores questions like the following:
What role have media like
newspapers, television, and the internet played in making the modern world the way it is?
What happens when so much of our
communication happens on a "mass" basis, between people who don't see or even
know each other?
How can we study the signs,
symbols, and cultural meanings that make up media messages?
How are the media organized, and
how does organizational form shape content?
What difference does it make,
for example, if media are funded with, say, advertising or tax money?
Readings: MediaMaking: Mass Media in a Popular Culture,
edited by Lawrence Grossberg, Ellen Wartella, and D. Charles Whitney (Sage, 1998); and
Corporate Media and the Threat to Democracy by Robert McChesney (Seven Stories Press,
1997) are available at the bookstore. Other required readings are available on electronic
The following is a list of readings and study questions for each section of the course.
Tentative dates when the material will be covered are listed after each heading; do the
readings before the date listed for discussing them in class. In each section, the
"theory" readings are listed first, and the "events" readings second;
usually your discussion list assignment will be to apply something from the
"theory" readings to something in the "events" readings. The questions
will both guide you in learning the course material throughout the semester, and will
serve as study questions for the exams. Look them overbefore doing the reading or
attending lectures. In all likelihood, it will be necessary to make minor changes in the
readings, schedule, and questions during the course; such changes will be announced in
class, and you are responsible for finding out about changes whether or not you attend
lectures. MediaMakingrefers to the textbook. Most other readings are on reserve in the
1. MediaMaking, Chapter 1
Why is the textbook titled "MediaMaking"? What are the differences between
interpersonal media, mass media, and network media? How can media be distinguished
according to channel modalities, economic modalities, institutions, technological
manifestations, content, and information technologies? What are institutions, cultural
forms, and mediation? What are the differences between a transmission and a cultural model
of communication? How can media power be understood as effects? as determination and
control? What are the differences between the conflict and consensus models of society?
Modernization, History, Social Development
1. MediaMaking, Chapter 2
2. Warren St. John, "Dating a Blogger, Reading All
About It," The New York Times, May 18, 2003.
3. Bertolt Brecht, "Radio as a Means of
Communication," (a talk delivered in Germany in 1930), from Mattelart and Mattelart,
Communication and Class Struggle Vol 2, (New York International General, 1985 pp. 169-171;
4. Raymond Williams, "The Social History of the Uses of Television Technology,"
from Television: Technology and Cultural Form, pp. 19-31.
What are the differences between Braudel's event, conjuncture, eras, and epochs? What are
the different theories of mass society? What are their strengths and weaknesses? What
happens in the transition from oral to print to electronic culture? What is technological
determinism and what are the problems with it? What are modernization, modernism,
modernity, and postmodernism? What is meant by "stages of development" in social
theory? What are some common way of categorizing the stages, and how are they relevant to
understanding media? What are some of the differences between oral and print societies?
What is mobile privatization? What is its importance for media? What are the key
technological breakthroughs that accompanied the transition to the "print" and
"electronic" eras? What is technological convergence in communications? What
distinguishes manuscript, oral, and print cultures? What were the limitations of preprint
written culture? What different technologies make up the printing press, and what are
their origins? What roles did social conditions play in the spread of printing? What role
did copyright play in the evolution of books? The rise of publishing companies? How are
publishing companies organized? What new trends have been introduced in publishing in the
twentieth century? How did the rise of print shape science? the Protestant Reformation?
the formation of dissident political movements? modern bureaucracy?
How was the formation of radio broadcasting early in the twentieth century like the
formation of the internet today? What were the contributions of Marconi, and De Forest to
radio? What were the first uses of radio technology? What role did amateurs play in
radio's history? the military? entrepreneurs? Why were large corporations interested in
broadcasting at first? How did advertising become the principle funding source of American
broadcasting? How did this shape broadcast content? How and why did government regulation
arise in radio? What were the principle radio networks in the 1930s, and what has happened
to them since? What is the significance of the Communications Act of 1934? What does the
law say about regulation "in the public interest?"
People and Organizations
1. MediaMaking, Chapter 3
2. "Expert Opinion: How to Shoot a Nude Scene [and other insider advice]," New
York Times Sunday Magazine, 11/3/2002
3. Josh Rottenburg, "The Insider's Indie: how a low-budget flick by a no-name
director became a major studio's Christmas release," New York Times Sunday Magazine,
11/3/2002, pp. 22-24;
4. CHRIS BALLARD, "How to Write a Catchy Beer
Ad," New York Times, January 26, 2003.
5. Doug Underwood, "Assembly-line Journalism," Columbia Journalism Review,
July/August 1998, pp. 42-44
6. Katharine Q. Seelye, "TV Drama, Pentagon-Style: A Fictional Terror Tribunal,"
New York Times, March 31, 2002
7. Katherine Rosman, "JonBenet, Inc." Brill's Content, February 2000, pp.
Optional -- Peter Maass, "Good Kills," New York Times Sunday Magazine, April 20,
What are the different levels of analysis for understanding people and organizations in
media? How do they relate to one another? What is the resource dependence perspective?
What are roles, reference groups, and routines and how do they matter in the media? How do
formulas, trackrecords, predictability, efficiency, and "borrowing" work in the
media? What are the forms of censorship? What other ways does government relate to media?
Other institutions to media institutions? What is meant by the
"television-industrial-complex?" What does it have to do with the relation of
program producers to their audience? What is the difference between direct and structural
forms of advertising influence on television content? How do the structures and
characteristics of television contribute to the industrialization of culture? How are
program ideas and programs created?
Media and Economics
1. MediaMaking, Chapter 4
2. Robert McChesney, Corporate Media and the Threat to Democracy, New York: Seven Stories
3. "Synergizing Private Lynch," New York Times, June 15, 2003.
4. JIM RUTENBERG, "To Interview Former P.O.W., CBS Dangles Stardom," New York
Times, June 16, 2003.
5. Paul Farhi, "Mega Hurts: Clear Channel's Big Radio Ways Are Getting a Lot of
Static These Days," Washington Post, Wednesday, May 29, 2002; Page C01,
6. Matt Witt, "We Rarely See Those Who Labor: Newspapers and broadcasters favor
corporate views, ignoring those of people who do America's work," 8-26-99: ibew1613.
7. Gloria Steinem, "Sex, Lies, and Advertising," from Joan Gorham (ed.), Mass
Media Annual Editions 99/00, Dushkin/McGraw-Hill, pp. 139173-181; originally published in
Ms. Magazine, July/August 1990, pp. 18-28.
8. Bill Moyers "Now: Media Concentration" (8 MB quicktime video; requires
What are monopoly, oligopoly, and limited competition in media structure? What are the
differences between freedom of consumer choice and consumer control? What are the
differences between direct and indirect payments for media products? What is vertical
integration? "Synergy?" What are use value, exchange value, commodities, the
labor theory of value, surplus value, and economies of scale? What are the different
sources of media support? What forms of competition are important to media? What are the
roles of break even points, royalties, hit-to-release ratios, and secondary markets? How
do media try to reduce risk? What is the difference between vertical and horizontal
How does advertising support change the economic relation of media to its audience? What
is the traditional economic view of the nature of advertising? What are some problems with
it? According to Gloria Steinem, why was Ms. Magazine forced to downsize and stop
accepting advertising? What role does marketing and advertising play in a modern
industrial consumer economy? Why are packaging and trademarks important in the history of
advertising? Why did some industrialists advocate shorter hours and higher wages for
workers at the turn of the century? Why is their strategy important to understanding
consumerism, advertising, and media?
Meaning, Semiotics, Ideology
1. Soc. 43 Semiotics and Media
2. Ellen Seiter, "Semiotics and Television," from Robert C. Allen (ed.),
Channels of Discourse, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987, pp. 17-41.
3. MediaMaking Chapter 5, "Meaning"
4. MediaMaking Chapter 6, "The Interpretation of Meaning"
5. MediaMaking Chapter 7, "Ideology"
6. MediaMaking Chapter 8, "Producing Identities"
7. Sut Jhally, "Tough Guise" (videotape) (To see Part 2 online, click here;
What is the role of signs in culture and society? What are some problems with
representational and conceptual theories of meaning? What is semiotics? What is its theory
of meaning? On what principles is semiotics based? What is the principle of difference? of
the arbitrariness of codes? What is the meaning of the following terms, and how are they
related: sign, signifier, signified, iconic/motivated sign, arbitrary sign, metaphor,
metonymy, paradigm, syntagm, denotation, connotation, myths, codes, articulation? How does
one conduct a semiotic analysis? What role can semiotic codes play in social life? How
does semiotic competence matter for media and children?
What questions does an interpreter ask of a text? Why is the notion of the author and the
author's intention problematic? What are the following techniques of interpretation: theme
and symbol analysis, content analysis, genre theory, and narrative analysis? What is the
meaning of the following terms: discourse, narrator, narratee? What is the commutation
test? What are binary oppositions? What is polysemy? aporias? What are the techniques for
analyzing visual texts?
What is realism? the willing suspension of disbelief? What are realist, phenomenal, and
social constructionist theories of ideology, and what are their strengths and weaknesses?
What is interpellation? How does it relate to ideology? What are the varieties and sources
of identity in the modern world? How do these matter to understanding the media? What are
the different ways of constructing the audience as a market? What are their social
implications? What is the difference between essentialist and nonessentialist ways of
understanding identities? What is subjectivity?
Understanding Audiences: Consuming the Media
1. MediaMaking, Chapter 9
2. Todd Gitlin, "The Problem of Knowing," pp. 19-30, and "By the
Numbers," pp. 47-55, from Inside Prime Time (New York: Pantheon, 1983).
3. Oscar H. Gandy, Jr., "Tracking the Audience," from John Downing, Ali
Mohammadi, and Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi (eds.), Questioning the Media: A Critical
Introduction, Newbury Park: Sage, 1990, pp. 166-179.
4. ROB WALKER, "The Marketing of No Marketing," New York Times, June 22, 2003.
5. Amy Harmon, "Star Wars' Fan Films Come Tumbling Back to Earth," New York
Times, April 28, 2002
6. Marshall Sella, "The Remote Controllers," New York Times, October 20, 2002.
What factors make the audience "mysterious" to media producers and social
scientists? What is the long term historical context of media consumption? What is meant
by the term "mass" in "mass media?" What does it connote about the
audience? What are some limitations to the term? How does the industry tend to view the
audience? Why is it helpful to say that meanings resides in audiences, not in texts? What
is the encoding/decoding model? What are preferred, oppositional, and negotiated meanings?
What is functionalism? What are the different kinds of functions of media? What are the
assumptions of functionalist approaches to the audience? What are some problems with
functionalist accounts? How are they circular and conservative? What are the three main
aspects of the social psychology of consumption of media? How do the differences between
public, private, and transitional spaces matter to the sociology of consumption? What is
the role of the home in the sociology of consumption? How do anonymous, institutional, and
family relations influence the sociology of media consumption? What are fans, fashions,
and subcultures, and how do they matter to media consumption?
What are the key features of the audience ratings system for television? What aspects of
the system have led the audience ratings to become the major measure of success of
television programming? What are the major criticisms of the ratings system? Why is Oscar
Gandy concerned about audience surveillance? What is meant by "the active
audience?" Uses and gratifications? Reception analysis? Dominant, negotiated, and
oppositional decodings? What role does information gathering play in modern industry? What
is the significance of the metaphor of the panopticon? How is digital distribution
changing the ways that people think and act towards pop music?
Media and Behavior
1. MediaMaking, Chapter 10
2. MediaMaking, Chapter 11
3. Robert Kubey and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, "TV Addiction," Scientific
American, February, 2002.
What are the main theories of media effects? What methods are used to study them? Why did
cultural approaches to media studies develop in opposition to media-effects research? What
is the difference between cognitive, affective, and conative components of media effects.
Why was Orson Welles' "War of the Worlds" broadcast important in the history of
media effects? What are the different dimensions of media effects? What are social
learning and "contagion" theories? What is the McGuire Process model? the theory
of reasoned action? information-processing approaches? What are the general findings of
media violence research? What is desensitization? the scary world syndrome? What are the
general findings of research into the effects of pornography? of research on educational
effects of media on children?
News, Politics, and the Public
1. MediaMaking Chapter 12
2. MediaMaking, Chapter 13
3. Jim Edwards, "Wrong Turns," Brill's Content, January 2001, pp. 113-169;
4. "Race Against Prime Time" (video, California Newsreel): available in the
Bailey-Howe library media center, or online: click here for part 1, and here for part 2.
5. Sharyn Wizda, "Parachute Journalism," American Journalism Review, July/August
1997, pp. 40-44.
Why is news important to modern democracies? What factors constrain news gathering and
dissemination? How do reporters decide what is news? How does economics influence their
decisions? What are the main categories of news and reporting? What are their
characteristics? How are newspaper and television newsrooms organized, and how do they
differ in the ways they present news stories? What role do wire services play in the news?
How have news consultants and new technologies influenced broadcast news? What is the
theory of objective journalism? What is its history? What news practices and techniques is
it associated with? How do these techniques influence the content of news? What are some
of the limits to and criticisms of news objectivity? What is the difference between
criticizing the news for bias and analyzing it as socially constructed? What is public
journalism? Deliberative democracy?
What is the history of news? Why is it hard to define newsworthiness? What are news beats?
How do reporters routinize the unexpected? What is the news net? Why do some worry about
reporters' tendency to "go native"? Where does the initiative for most news
stories come from? Why do news reports in different media so frequently resemble each
other? Why does journalist objectivity fit the standards of an ideology? How do media
influence political behavior? What are opinion leaders? Early-, campaign-, and
late-deciders? What is agenda-setting? priming? third person effects? the spiral of
What are some different definitions of the public? Why do some say the public is in
decline? What are the different ways of representing the public? What is civic or public
journalism? What roles do media and campaign advertising actually play in elections today?
How has television transformed the campaign process in the last forty years?
Media Policy and the Future of Global Democracy
1. MediaMaking, Chapter 14
2. MediaMaking, Chapter 15, "Media Globalization"
3. Global Culture: a photo essay by Joe McNally, with text by Joel L. Swerdlow and Erla
Swingle, National Geographic Vol. 196, No. 2, August 1999, pp. 2-33.
4. Umberto Eco, "Towards a Semiological Guerrilla Warfare," from Travels in
Hyperreality, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986, pp. 135-144.
5. Jonathan Weinberg "Internet Governance"
6. Lawrence Lessig, "The Architecture of Information"
7. Michael Curtin and Thomas Streeter, "Media," in Culture Works: The Political
Economy of Culture, University of Minnesota Press, 2001, pp. 225-249.
8. John Downing, "Alternative Media and the Boston Tea Party," from John
Downing, Ali Mohammadi, and Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi (eds.), Questioning the Media: A
Critical Introduction, Newbury Park: Sage, 1990, pp. 180-191.
Can you talk back to your TV? What is the enlightenment heritage? What are classical
liberal ideas of press freedom? Why have they eroded in the twentieth century? What are
social responsibility theories? What are the Marxist critiques of the media? What are
cultural arguments about ideologies? What conditions underlie international communication?
What is media imperialism? What are theories of hegemony and globalization? How are modern
and postmodern theories of hegemony different? What is "semiological guerrilla
warfare?" What does it have to do with the nature of contemporary media?
TO COMMUNICATION THEORY - COMM 1302 SYLLABUS
Distance Education: On-line section and Hybrid Section
Dr. Martha J. Haun E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Course Objectives: By developing an understanding of a variety of theories of human
communication, students will achieve an understanding that permits a more flexible,
useful, and discriminating interpretation of human communication events.
[recommended] Communication: Theory and Concepts, by Martha J. Haun,
McGraw-Hill, 2004, 6th
edition. An advance apology: This book is currently
under revision especially to correct typos that were the result of a crisis/rush to
deadline. It does, however, outline the lectures and thus reduce note-taking.
[recommended] Turner & West. Introducing Communication Theory Analysis &
Application. ISBN: 10-0-07-31561-5 or ISBN 13: 978-0-07-313561-8 McGraw-
EXAM # 1 MATERIAL
Lecture #1: The Role of Theory in the Study of Communication: Dr. Haun
[Haun1.ppt, systemK.ppt, inform.ppt, cyber.ppt] These PowerPoint
references are correlated to the video lectures and are available online for
additional review. A few are in the back of the Haun textbook.
Communication: Toward a Definition
Feedback, Channels and Noise
Messages and Contexts
Three domains: social, public and media
The Nature of Theory
Laws, Systems and Rules Perspectives
Functions of Theories
Evaluating Theories Page 6 of 9
Examples of General Theories
Systems Theory: Ludwig von Bertalanffy
Information Theory: Shannon and Weaver
Lecture #2: Guest Dr. Robin Williamson [Robin1.ppt; Robin1B.ppt]
Theories of Verbal Coding and Thinking
Signs, signals and symbols
Semantics, Pragmatics and Syntactics
Classical, Structural Linguistics
Behavioristic: B.F. Skinner
Generative Grammar: Noam Chomsky
Language Acquisition: Behaviorist vs. Nativist
Theories of Thinking
Behavioristic vs. Cognitive approaches
Definition of a Concept: Bourne
Cybernetic Approach/TOTE Model: Miller, Galant & Pribram
Developmental School: Jean Piaget
Reflective Thinking Approach: John Dewey
Lecture #3: Dr. Haun [Haun2.ppt; MeadSI.ppt; semantic.ppt]
Theories of Meaning
The Image: Kenneth Boulding
Interactionist Approach: John Dewey
Representational Theory/Triangle of Meaning: Ogden/Richards
Semantic Space: Charles Osgood
Experiential Theories of Meaning
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Linguistic Relativity Principle
Elaborated & Restricted Codes: Basil Berstein
Theories of Interactionism and Dramatism
Symbolic Interaction: G. H. Mead
H. Blumer and T. Kuhn
Narrative Theories: Bormann and Fisher
General Semantics: Korzybski and Johnson
Lecture #4: Dr. Haun
[drama.ppt, nonverb.ppt; NVconcpt.ppt]
Dramaturgical: K. Burke and E. Goffman
Theories of Nonverbal Coding
Definition and overview
Theory of Kinesics: Birdwhistell
Theory of Proxemics: Edward Hall
Theory of Paralanguage: Trager
Origin/Coding/Usage: Ekman & Friesen
Theory of Behavioral Deviation: Dittman
Page 7 of 9
Lecture #5: Dr. Haun [persuas1.ppt]
Theories of Persuasion: Part I
The Nature of Attitude: McGuire
Functional Theory of Attitudes: Katz
The Nature of Beliefs and Values: Rokeach
The Role of Learning Theory
Consistency Theories: Heider & Newcombe
Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Leon Festinger
Lecture #6: Dr. Williamson [Robin2.ppt]
Theories of Persuasion: Part II
Theory of Influenceability: Wm. McGuire
Yale Theories of Persuasion: Janis & Hovland
Information Processing Theories of Persuasion
Social Judgment Theory: Sherif, Sherif & Nebergall
Lecture #7: Dr. Haun [persuas1.ppt] and REVIEW
Theories of Persuasion: Part III
Elaboration Likelihood Model: Petty & Caccioppo
Motivated Sequence: Alan Monroe
Propaganda: Leonard Doob and Jacques Ellul
Media Organizations and Mass