The term 'Pan-Indianism' has been applied to social
movements among both Asian Indians and North American First Nations peoples. In
both contexts Pan-Indianism refers to a social movement and a political philosophy that
asserts a peoples' common identity and unity across political or state boundaries and
Howard defined the concept of pan-Indianism as follows:
By pan-Indianism is meant the process by which sociocultural entities such as the Seneca,
Delaware, Creek, Yuchi, Ponca, and Comanche are losing their tribal distinctiveness and in
its place are developing a nontribal Indian culture. Some of the elements in
this culture are modifications of old tribal customs. Others seem to be innovations
peculiar to pan-Indianism. (Howard 1955:214).
Pan-Indianism is, in my opinion, one of the final stages of progressive acculturation, just prior to complete assimilation. It may
best be explained as a final attempt to preserve aboriginal culture and tradition patterns
through intertribal unity. How long this pan-Indian culture will continue is dependent on
a number of largely unpredictable factors, such as economic conditions, population shifts,
and future miscegenation. (Howard 1955:220).
Robert Thomas (1965) summarizes the essential new ideas with
regard to the concept pan-Indianism as follows:
One can legitimately define Pan-Indianism as the expression of a new
identity and the institutions and symbols which are both an expression of that new
identity and a fostering of it. It is the attempt to create a new ethnic group, the
American Indian; it is also a vital social movement which is forever changing and growing
Pan-Indian institutions such as Indian centers in cities, Pow Wow
committees and so forth are institutions through which Indians can have some productive
relationship to the general society. (Thomas 1965:81)
Pan-Indianism is the creation of a new identity, a new ethnic group, if you will, a new
nationality in America. (Thomas 1965:82)
My working definition of the term powwow is a social gathering
of people who are celebrating various aspects of Pan-Indian culture, be they religious,
social, or, in many cases, both. (Lita Mathews)
Pan-Indianism and Indigenous Organizations in Ecuador
Prepared for delivery at Indigenous Peoples: An International Symposium, University of
Nebraska-Lincoln, April 8-9, 1997.
Abstract: As in the rest of Latin America, Ecuadorians have viewed the aboriginal
inhabitants of their country as simply "Indians." There has been, however,
little study of the historical development of this pan-Indian consciousness. Pan-Indian
organizations, such as the early twentieth-century Society of American Indians, emerged
out of urban, elite Indian professionals who had largely become separated from their
tribal roots. Often pan-Indian organizations in Ecuador are directed by people who went to
Quito to study or otherwise had extensive contact with the dominant Spanish culture.
Understanding these roots of inter-tribal contacts and a pan-ethnic identity is important
because it indicates whether Indian nationalism is a function of contact with western
notions of state formation, or whether it grows out of Indigenous forms of social organization.
Early Pan-Indianism: Tecumseh's Tour of the Indian Country, 1811-1812. -
Abstract: Tecumseh's tour of 1811-1812 was a remarkable effort involving 3,000 miles and
contacts with 8-12 of the present American Indian tribes. Tecumseh's success owed much to
standing grievances of the Indians and the disposition of the British, but depended also
upon timely occurrences such as Harrison's engagement on the Tippecanoe. - eric.ed.gov
The Contest Powwow - a cultural expression of
Pan-Indianism? - Dr. Rainer Hatoum
Abstract: As will be demonstrated, the terms powwow and
pan-Indianism and their meanings are a disadvantageous starting point to
answer the central question stated in heading.
On the other hand, two extreme positions exemplify different theoretical traditions of
thought in respect to the concept of pan-Indianism. The concept went through a
parallel theoretical reorientation as it was taking place in the general American
anthropology at that time. With a changing interest from acculturation and assimilation
processes towards topics related to and centered around the term ethnic
identity, not only the general meaning of the concept pan-Indianism
changed. Both theoretical traditions left, even beyond the academic context, basic
assumptions concerning the general relations between the two phenomena contest
powwow and pan-Indianism. At both of their cores is the thought that the
phenomenon powwow represents a cultural expression of
Starting point of the assumptions centering around the term ethnic identity
was the implication that the phenomenon powwow is an expression of a new
identity as Native Americans. This notion is caught in the characterization of the
powwow as a vehicle of pan-Indianism.
The question whether one can consider the powwow as a cultural expression of
pan-Indianism or not, relates therefore to a discourse in anthropology based
on theoretical grounds, which goes beyond specific examples. The discussion on the
concepts and phenomena pan-Indianism and powwow demonstrate,
therefore, results of anthropological work on a regional basis. In this context it is
interesting to note that the specific theoretical foundations of the concept
pan-Indianism were laid mainly in the course of a period of about twenty
The Acculturation of American Indians
Evon Z. Vogt, Harvard University
The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 311, No. 1,
Despite all the pressures for changing the ways of American Indians into those of the
white man, there are still basically Indian systems of social
structure and culture persisting with variable vigor within conservative nuclei of
Indian population. The author provides a brief synoptic review of the degree of
acculturation in such areas, and discusses the limiting factors to full acculturation by
comparing the situation of the United States with that of Mexico, and considers the
development of "Pan- Indianism" as an emerging stage in the acculturation
Hertzberg, Hazel W.
1971 The Search for an American Indian Identity: Modern Pan-Indian Movements. Syracuse:
Syracuse University Press.
Hiribayashi, James, William Willard, and Luis Kemnitzer
1972 Pan-Indianism in the Urban Setting. In: Thomas Weaver and Douglas White (eds.); The
Anthropology of Urban Environments. Society for Applied Anthropology, Monograph 11, pp.
Howard, James H.
1955 The Pan-Indian Culture of Okalhoma. Southwest Journal of Anthropology 8(5):215-220.
1996 Powwows as Identity Markers: Traditional or Pan-Indian? Human Organization
Newcomb, W. W. Jr.
1955 A Note on Cherokee-Delaware Pan-Indianism. American Anthropologist (57):1041-1045.
1956 The Culture and Acculturation of the Delaware Indians. Papers of the Museum of
Anthropology, University of Michigan (10).
1966 Feathers Costume. Powwow Trails 3(7-8):4-14, 19.
1968 Contemporary Oglala Music and Dance: Pan-Indianism Versus Pan-Tetonism.
1971 Pan-Indianism, Acculturation, and the American Ideal. Plains Anthropologist
Thomas, Robert K.
1965 Pan-Indianism. Midcontinent American Studies Journal 6(2):75-83.
Vogt, Evon Z.
1957 The Acculturation of the American Indians. Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Science (311):137-46.
1916 General Discussion of Shamanistic and Dancing Societies. American Museum of Natural
History, Anthropological Papers 11(12):853-876.
Young, Gloria A.