Sociology Index

Pan-Indianism

The term Pan-Indianism has been applied to social movements among both Asian Indians and North American First Nations peoples. In both contexts Pan-Indianism refers to a social movement and a political philosophy that asserts a peoples' common identity and unity across political or state boundaries and tribal divisions.

Howard defined the concept of ‘pan-Indianism’ as follows: By pan-Indianism is meant the process by which sociocultural entities such as the Seneca, Delaware, Creek, Yuchi, Ponca, and Comanche are losing their tribal distinctiveness and in its place are developing a nontribal “Indian“ culture. Some of the elements in this culture are modifications of old tribal customs. Others seem to be innovations peculiar to pan-Indianism. (Howard 1955:214).

Pan-Indianism is, in my opinion, one of the final stages of progressive acculturation, just prior to complete assimilation. It may best be explained as a final attempt to preserve aboriginal culture and tradition patterns through intertribal unity. How long this pan-Indian culture will continue is dependent on a number of largely unpredictable factors, such as economic conditions, population shifts, and future miscegenation. (Howard 1955:220).

Robert Thomas (1965) summarizes the essential ‘new’ ideas with regard to the concept pan-Indianism as follows: One can legitimately define Pan-Indianism as the expression of a new identity and the institutions and symbols which are both an expression of that new identity and a fostering of it. Pan-Indianism is the creation of a new identity, a new ethnic group, if you will, a new nationality in America.

Pan-Indianism and Indigenous Organizations in Ecuador
Prepared for delivery at Indigenous Peoples: An International Symposium, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
There has been little study of the historical development of pan-Indian consciousness. Pan-Indian organizations, emerged out of urban, who had largely become separated from their tribal roots. Often pan-Indian organizations in Ecuador are directed by people who went to Quito to study. Whether Indian nationalism is a function of contact with western notions of state formation, or whether it grows out of Indigenous forms of social organization.

Early Pan-Indianism: Tecumseh's Tour of the Indian Country, 1811-1812. - Sugden, John 
Abstract: Tecumseh's tour of 1811-1812 was a remarkable effort involving 3,000 miles and contacts with 8-12 of the present American Indian tribes. Tecumseh's success owed much to standing grievances of the Indians and the disposition of the British, but depended also upon timely occurrences such as Harrison's engagement on the Tippecanoe.

The Contest Powwow - a cultural expression of Pan-Indianism? - Dr. Rainer Hatoum
The terms 'powwow' and 'pan-Indianism' and their meanings are a disadvantageous starting point. Two extreme positions exemplify different theoretical traditions of thought in respect to the concept of pan-Indianism. Both theoretical traditions left, basic assumptions concerning the general relations between the two phenomena ‘contest powwow’ and pan-Indianism. That the phenomenon ‘powwow’ represents a cultural expression of pan-Indianism. The discussion on the concepts and phenomena pan-Indianism and ‘powwow’ demonstrate results of anthropological work on a regional basis. Specific theoretical foundations of the concept pan-Indianism were laid in the course of a period of about twenty years.

The Acculturation of American Indians 
Evon Z. Vogt, Harvard University 
Despite pressures for changing the ways of American Indians into those of the white man, there are still Indian systems of social structure and culture persisting. The author considers the development of Pan-Indianism as an emerging stage in the acculturation process.

Hertzberg, Hazel W.
1971 The Search for an American Indian Identity: Modern Pan-Indian Movements. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
Hiribayashi, James, William Willard, and Luis Kemnitzer
1972 Pan-Indianism in the Urban Setting. In: Thomas Weaver and Douglas White (eds.); The Anthropology of Urban Environments. Society for Applied Anthropology, Monograph 11, pp. 77-87.
Howard, James H.
1955 The Pan-Indian Culture of Okalhoma. Southwest Journal of Anthropology 8(5):215-220.
1996 Powwows as Identity Markers: Traditional or Pan-Indian? Human Organization 55(4):390-395.
Newcomb, W. W. Jr.
1955 A Note on Cherokee-Delaware Pan-Indianism. American Anthropologist (57):1041-1045.
1956 The Culture and Acculturation of the Delaware Indians. Papers of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan (10).
1966 Feathers Costume. Powwow Trails 3(7-8):4-14, 19.
1968 Contemporary Oglala Music and Dance: Pan-Indianism Versus Pan-Tetonism. Ethnomusicology 12(3):352-372.
Sanford, Margaret
1971 Pan-Indianism, Acculturation, and the American Ideal. Plains Anthropologist 16(53):222- 227.
Thomas, Robert K.
1965 Pan-Indianism. Midcontinent American Studies Journal 6(2):75-83.
Vogt, Evon Z.
1957 The Acculturation of the American Indians. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (311):137-46.
Wissler, Clark
1916 General Discussion of Shamanistic and Dancing Societies. American Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Papers 11(12):853-876.
Young, Gloria A.