Pay equity generally refers to laws and public
and corporate policies that have as their objective the elimination of pay differentials
linked to gender, ethnic identity or particular minority status.
Pay equity is usually concerned with correcting
gender-based labour market inequality experienced by women. (In principle such policies
could apply also to men, but there is little evidence of gendered disadvantage for men in
the labour market.)
Main issue is the problem of relatively direct
discrimination: women being paid less than men for the same or essentially similar work.
Gender and Pay Equity: Future Research Directions
Gillian Whitehouse, University of Queensland
Pay inequity, like other aspects of women's disadvantage in employment, has persisted in
spite of longstanding measures designed to eradicate it. In Australia, equal pay
initiatives led to a marked improvement for women in the early I970s, but recent
advancement has been limited, both here and in many other advanced industrialized
countries. Observers could conclude that pay equity research and strategy have reached an
impasse. This paper identifies a range of current difficulties in researching pay
inequity, and argues that, if strategy is to be effectively informed, future research will
need to include enhanced ways of clarifying the meaning of the `gender pay gap' and
multidisciplinary investigation of the forces inside and outside the labour market that
perpetuate and reproduce pay inequality. - apj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/1/116
Pay Equity and Social Work - Miriam L. Freeman
During the 1980s, pay equity emerged as a major employment and economic issue. Pay equity
is proposed as one solution to the gap in wages between white men, women, and men of
color. There is an abundance of information on this issue, but little attention has been
paid to it in the social work literature. This article discusses the relevance of pay
equity for social work and suggests strategies for achieving it. -
PAY EQUITY AND COMPARABLE WORTH
JOHN RAISIAN, MICHAEL P. WARD and FINIS WELCH
An important and emerging public policy considerationgenerally called equal pay for
comparable worthhas received great attention from those who influence or report
public policy initiatives. The comparable worth movement is directed at pay equity issues,
primarily between men and women. The source of controversy surrounding comparable worth
concerns the mechanism for determining wages in the economyeither an unre-stricted
market process or a subjective valuation process by designated "pay equity
experts." Although the pay and allocation mechanisms and their side effects are
controversial, other important questions concern the actual method of equity determination
to be used in implementing comparable worth. This paper analyzes, from a general public
policy perspective, many of the issues and much of the evidence surrounding comparable
worth initiatives. - cep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/IV/2/4
Progress or Complacency? Pay Equity for Women Circa 2001 - Margaret Gibelman
This article explores the issue of women's pay in social work within acomparative
framework of several other service occupations. A secondaryanalysis of U.S. Department of
Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,data on wages and earnings revealed that substantial
salary discrepancieson the basis of gender continue to exist throughout theservice
professions. An examination of the relationship between salaryand gender for the position
of chief executive officer of human-servicerelated nonprofit organizations also revealed
significant salary differencesbetween men and women. Several strategic approaches to
combatcontinued inequities are discussed within the context of the generallyinhospitable
political climate. - aff.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/17/3/279
Pay Equity and Wage Justice - Carol A. Kates, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850
Pay equity job evaluations remove some wage bias, but do not resolve class inequalities.
It is "socially efficient" to require capital to meet a democratic standard of
wage justice, which would require firms to continuously upgrade job values, eliminate
unskilled work, reduce hours of work, and pay a high minimum wage. Requiring firms to
upgrade and equalize job structures builds on the pay equity argument and addresses both
discrimination and class issues. - rrp.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/26/2/1
Recent Trends in Pay Equity: Beyond the Aggregate Statistics
Gillian Whitehouse, Department of Government, University of Queensland
The earnings gap between men and women has remained comparatively stable at an aggregate
level over the 1990s in Australia. From one perspective, this is a reminder of the
considerable difficulty of addressing wage differentials once the most overt forms of wage
discrimination have been removed, and of the limited impact of most policy initiatives.
From another, it may be seen as evidence that dire predictions about the effects of
decentralisation on the earnings gap have failed to materialise. In this paper, I use
Australian Bureau of Statistics data to show that a number of different trends are evident
underneath the relatively static picture shown by the aggregate statistics, particularly
as wage dispersion has increased. The data suggest not only that the prospects for pay
equity are far from benign, but also that in the current labour market the issue of gender
pay inequality cannot be effectively addressed separately from wage inequality more
generally. - jir.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/43/1/66
Equal PayPast Experience, Future Directions: A Practitioner's Perspective
Felicity Rafferty, Senior Federal Industrial Officer, Professional Officers Association,
Australian Public Service, 46-48 Colbee Court, Phillip, ACT 2606
It has been the experience of the Professional Officers Association that the Industrial
Relations Commission has not been the major stumbling block to the implementation of the
principle of 'equal pay for work of equal value'. Rather, in the association's sphere of
operations, the Commonwealth government has been the greatest obstacle to the
implementation of equal pay in the predominantly female professions in its own area of
employment, in spite of its stated commitment to the commission's 1972 equal pay decision.
In recent years the pay equity lobby has tended to underestimate the influence of the
federal government with regard to the application of equal pay. To increase the
responsiveness of the system to demands for pay equity for women, greater pressure needs
to be brought to bear on the government of the day at the national level by a
well-organized women's lobby capable of ensuring that the government's policy commitment
in this area is genuine, active and continuing. -
Career Issues for Women Association Executives
Mentors, Pay Equity; and Boards of Directors - Betty S. Coffey, Stella E.
department of management, John A. Walker College of Business, at Appalachian State
This article reports the results of a study of the experiences of women association
executives: the challenges those women face in their current positions, the career issues
that affect women managers, and the ways in which they manage their organizations. Three
major issues surfaced in the interviews: (1) the importance of career development and
mentors, (2) the prevalence of pay inequity, and (3) the challenges of developing working
relationships with board members. Mentors were particularly important to these women in
the early stages of their career, for career-oriented advice. Many women are working for
less money than their male counterparts (a woman's starting pay often was based on her
past salary rather than the value of her current position). Several women reported that
their board of directors felt that they could "get more for less" from a woman
executive. - cqx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/39/1/34
Remedying 'Unfair Acts': U.S. Pay Equity by Race and Gender - Lapidus J.; Figart D.
Abstract: Case studies in Canada, Australia, and the U.S. have found that pay equity (or
comparable worth) has reduced the gender-based wage gap substantially, and results of
research on the gender composition of jobs have been used guiding pay equity
implementation. But, in general, the racial composition jobs remains overlooked in the
literature and in public policy. We extend previous work on eliminating the wage penalty
of employment in female-dominated occupations to estimating the potential effect of
adopting comparable worth to alleviate race- as well as gender-based wage discrimination.
First we report the negative impact of racial-ethnic and female composition of jobs on pay
in the U.S. Correcting for this form of wage discrimination, we find that implementing
comparable worth would appreciably narrow the race- and gender-based wage gaps and
significantly reduce the percent of workers earning poverty-level wages, especially among
women of color. Close to 50 percent of women of color and 40 percent of white women
currently earning less than the federal poverty threshold for a family of three would be
lifted out of poverty. Second, we show that, in addition to the effects of occupational
concentration, being a woman, an African-American, or a worker of Hispanic origin
negatively and significantly affects pay. Not every type of wage discrimination is
alleviated by a pay equity policy, which is why activists have also supported
anti-discrimination and affirmative action policies for women and people of color. -
Pay Equity in Minnesota: the Facts Are in - Nina Rothchild, Bonnie Watkins
This paper presents information about Minnesota's experience with pay equity at both the
state and local government levels. Implementation for state government was initiated in
1983 and com pleted in June 1987. Most local governments have completed studies, and
implementation is planned within the next few years. The cost to state government has been
3.7 percent of payroll, and the estimated cost to local governments averages 2.6 percent
of payroll. Minnesota's experience shows that pay equity can be implemented smoothly at a
reasonable cost. - rop.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/7/3/16
ACCOUNTING FOR GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN JOB INCOME IN CANADA: RESULTS FROM A 1981 SURVEY,
Ornstein, Michael D.; Labour Canada: Women's Bureau: 1983.
ACHIEVING PAY EQUITY IN ONTARIO: THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN AND THE LAW RESPONSE TO
POLICY DIRECTIONS: AMENDING THE PAY EQUITY ACT, A DISCUSSION PAPER BY THE ONTARIO MINISTRY
OF LABOUR, National Association of Women and the Law: 1990.
ANNUAL REPORT, Pay Equity Commission of Ontario, Toronto.
CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL ISSUES CONFRONTING THE EQUAL VALUE APPROACH TO EQUAL PAY, Robb,
Roberta Edgecombe: 1984.
CONTESTING THE MARKET: PAY EQUITY AND THE POLITICS OF ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING, Deborah M.
Figart and Peggy Kahn, 1997.
Abstract: Subjects pertaining to Michigan include Women in the civil service, salaries and
sex discrimination in employment.
EQUAL PAY: COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND THE LAW, Labour Canada; Cornish, Mary F.: 1986.
EQUAL PAY FOR COMPARABLE WORK: A BIBLIOGRAPHY, Dworaczek, Marian: 1984.
EQUAL-PAY-FOR-EQUAL-WORK LEGISLATION IN CANADA, Economic Council of Canada; Alexander,
Judith Ann: 1984.
EQUAL PAY FOR WORK OF EQUAL VALUE AND RELATED ISSUES IN SPORT, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND
RECREATION, Ontario Women's Directorate: 1987.
EQUAL PAY IN THE OFFICE, Blau, Francine D.: 1977.
EQUAL PAY LEGISLATION AND IMPLEMENTATION: SELECTED COUNTRIES, Goodwin, Cynthia; Equal Pay
Policy Division, Employment Relations and Conditions of Work Branch, Labour Canada:
EQUAL VALUE/COMPARABLE WORTH IN THE UK AND THE USA, edited by Peggy Kahn and Elizabeth
FOCUS ON EQUAL EMPLOYMENT: PAY EQUITY: IMPLICATIONS OF IMPENDING REGULATIONS, Hay
Management Consultants: 1986.
FORUM ON PAY EQUITY: PROCEEDINGS, Nova Scotia Advisory Council on the Status of Women,
GREEN PAPER ON PAY EQUITY, Honourable Ian Scott, Attorney General and Minister Responsible
for Women's Issues: 1985.
A GUIDE TO PAY EQUITY FOR THE BROADER PUBLIC SECTOR: A JOB EVALUATION SYSTEM, Pay Equity
Commission of Ontario: 1994.
Abstract: This guide provides information on the steps needed to set up a job evaluation
process, intended for broader public sector employers who will use either the proportional
value or proxy comparison method to achieve pay equity.
JOB EVALUATION: A QUEST FOR GENDER NEUTRALITY UNDER ONTARIO'S PAY EQUITY ACT, Murtha,
Julie; Queens's University School of Industrial Relations: 1992.
JUST GIVE US THE MONEY: A DISCUSSION OF WAGE DISCRIMINATION AND PAY EQUITY, Lewis, Debra
J. and Price, Lisa S.; Women's Research Centre, Vancouver: 1988.
LEGALIZING GENDER INEQUALITY: COURTS, MARKETS AND UNEQUAL PAY FOR WOMEN IN THE UNITED
STATES. Robert L. Nelson, William P. Bridges. 1999.
LEGISLATING PAY EQUITY TO RAISE WOMEN'S WAGES: A PROGRESS REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF
THE ONTARIO, CANADA PAY EQUITY ACT, National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC:
MANUAL ON PAY EQUITY: RAISING WAGES FOR WOMEN'S WORK, Joy Ann Grune; Women in the Economy
THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN AND THE LAW RESPONSE TO THE BRITISH COLUMBIA MINISTRY OF
EQUALITY'S PAY EQUITY PROPOSALS OF JULY 17, 1992, National Association of Women and the
THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN AND THE LAW RESPONSE TO "WORKING TOWARDS
EQUALITY" (EMPLOYMENT EQUITY IN ONTARIO), National Association of Women and the Law,
written by members of the NAWL Employment and Labour Issues Working Group: 1992.
THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN AND THE LAW SUBMISSION ON THE PAY EQUITY ACT REVIEW
1996, National Association of Women and the Law: 1996.
THE ONTARIO PAY EQUITY ACT, GENDER-BIAS, AND JOB EVALUATION SYSTEMS: AN ANALYSIS, Levia,
Paul; Queen's University School of Industrial Relations, Kingston, Ontario: 1998.
ONTARIO PAY EQUITY LEGISLATION FOR BROADER PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS, Special report (CCH
PAY EQUITY: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ONTARIO PAY EQUITY ACT 1987 AND ITS PROPOSED
AMENDMENTS, Wolfe, Janis L., Queen's University School of Industrial Relations:
PAY EQUITY ACT, 1987, Government of Ontario: 1988.
PAY EQUITY AND COMPARABLE WORTH, Bureau of National Affairs, Washington, D.C.: 1984.
PAY EQUITY AND JOB EVALUATION, Manitoba Pay Equity Bureau: 1987.
PAY EQUITY: EMPIRICAL ENQUIRIES, Robert T. Michael, Heidi I. Hartmann, and Brigid
O'Farrell, editors; Panel on Pay Equity Research, Committee on Women's Employment and
Related Social Issues, Commission on Behavioural and Social Sciences and Education,
National Research Council, Washington, DC: 1989.
Note: Selected papers of a workshop held in Sept. 1987.
PAY EQUITY HANDBOOK: A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE TO IMPLEMENTING EQUAL PAY FOR WORK OF EQUAL
VALUE IN ONTARIO, Elliott, Cheryl J. and Saxe, Stewart J.: 1992.
PAY EQUITY IN PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE ESTABLISHMENTS, Marilyn Evans and Associates / prepared
for the Pay Equity Commission, Province of Ontario: 1988.
PAY EQUITY IN PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE ESTABLISHMENTS: CHILDCARE SECTOR, Ontario Pay Equity
Commission, Toronto: 1988.
PAY EQUITY IN PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE ESTABLISHMENTS: HEALTH CARE SECTOR, Ontario Pay Equity
Commission, Toronto: 1988.
PAY EQUITY IN PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE ESTABLISHMENTS: LEATHER, TEXTILE AND APPAREL
MANUFACTURING SECTORS, Ontario Pay Equity Commission, Toronto: 1988.
PAY EQUITY IN PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE ESTABLISHMENTS: MANUFACTURING SECTOR, Ontario Pay
Equity Commission, Toronto: 1988.
PAY EQUITY IN PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE ESTABLISHMENTS: PERSONAL SERVICES SECTOR, Decoito,
Paula / prepared for the Pay Equity Commission, Province of Ontario, 1988.
PAY EQUITY IN PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE ESTABLISHMENTS: RETAIL SECTOR, Ontario Pay Equity
Commission, Toronto: 1988.
PAY EQUITY IN PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE ESTABLISHMENTS: THE COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE
SECTOR, Findlay, M. Suzanne / prepared for the Pay Equity Commission, Province of Ontario:
PAY EQUITY IN PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE ESTABLISHMENTS: THE LIBRARY SECTOR, Roma Harris /
prepared for the Pay Equity Commission, Province of Ontario: 1988.
PAY EQUITY IN PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE ESTABLISHMENTS: TOURISM SECTOR, Sayer and Associates /
prepared for the Pay Equity Commission, Province of Ontario: 1988.
PAY EQUITY IN THE WORKPLACE: Q's & A's, The Pay Equity Commission of Ontario:
PAY EQUITY: ISSUES, OPTIONS & EXPERIENCES, Weiner, Nan; Gunderson, Morley: 1990.
PAY EQUITY LEGISLATION: LINKING ECONOMIC ISSUES AND POLICY CONCERNS, Industrial Relations
Centre, Queen's University / edited by Richard P. Chaykowski: 1990.
Abstract: Based on a panel discussion entitled 'Pay equity and comparable worth: a
dialogue on issues and implementation', held at Queen's University, May 18, 1988.
PAY EQUITY STRATEGY AND FEMINIST LEGAL THEORY: CHALLENGING THE BOUNDS OF LIBERALISM,
Kainer, Jan; Canadian Journal of Women and the Law: 1995.
A POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PAY EQUITY FOR NON-TEACHING EMPLOYEES IN
MANITOBA SCHOOL DIVISIONS, Manitoba Pay Equity Bureau: 1990.
THE RATE FOR THE JOB, Cole, Margaret, London: 1946.
Note: A pamphlet prepared for the Fabian women's group and based on the evidence of the
group before the Royal commission on equal pay.
REPORT OF THE CONSULTATION PANEL ON PAY EQUITY - GREEN PAPER ON PAY EQUITY, Ontario
Women's Directorate: 1986.
REPORT OF THE INTERDEPARTMENTAL COMMITTEE ON PAY EQUITY, Women's Directorate, Fredericton:
REPORT TO THE MINISTER OF LABOUR ON SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY WHICH ARE PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE,
AS REQUIRED UNDER THE PAY EQUITY ACT, SECTION 33(2)(E), Pay Equity Commission of Ontario,
REPORT TO THE MINISTER ON THE OPTIONS RELATING TO THE ACHIEVEMENT OF PAY EQUITY IN SECTORS
OF THE ECONOMY WHICH ARE PREDOMINANTLY FEMALE, Pay Equity Commission of Ontario:
SQUARING UP: POLICY STRATEGIES TO RAISE WOMEN'S INCOME IN THE UNITED STATES. Edited by
Mary C. King. Ann Arvor. 2001.
WAGE DISCRIMINATION AND WOMEN WORKERS: THE MOVE TOWARDS EQUAL PAY FOR WORK OF EQUAL VALUE
IN CANADA, Niemann, Lindsay; Labour Canada: Women's Bureau: 1984.
THE WAGES OF MEN AND WOMEN: SHOULD THEY BE EQUAL, Webb, Beatrice Potter, London:
WHAT WORKS: EXPERIENCES WITH IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PAY EQUITY LEGISLATION: FINAL REPORT,
Pay Equity Office, Toronto: 1991.
WOMEN AND EQUAL PAY: THE EFFECTS OF LEGISLATION ON FEMALE EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES IN BRITAIN,
Zabalza, Antoni; Tzannstos, Z.: 1985.
WOMEN/PAY EQUITY EMPLOYMENT LAW NEWS, Vol. 5, no. 1 (Jan. 1989)-.
Abstract: Issued in series: Lancaster labour law reports, and Lancaster's women/pay equity
employment law news.
WOMEN, WORK AND INEQUALITY: THE CHALLENGE OF EQUAL PAY IN A DEREGULATED LABOUR MARKET.
Edited by Jeanne Gregory, Rosemary Sales, Ariane Hegewisch. 1999.
WOMEN, WORK, AND WAGES: EQUAL PAY FOR JOBS OF EQUAL VALUE, Treiman, Donald J.; Hartmann,
Heidi; United States National Research Council; Committee on Occupational Classification
and Analysis: 1981.
Pay equity for social work