Polygyny, Polygamy, Monogamy
Polyandry is a marriage
structure where a woman has more than one husband at one time.
Polyandry is Polygamy in which one woman has two or more husbands at the same
Polyandry is rare, but when it
is found there is often fraternal polyandry, in which the husbands are brothers.
The term polyandry is also used
where a female animal has more than one male mate.
Polyandrist is a person who
practises or favours polyandry, that is, a woman who has several husbands at the same
Polygamy is marriage structure
in which there is more than one spouse at a time. The term polygamy covers both Polygyny and polyandry.
The dynamics of polyandry: kinship, domesticity,
and population on the Tibetan border.
Levine, N. E., University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Abstract: Polyandry, the simultaneous marriage of two or
more men to a single women, is cross-culturally rare and has been little studied. The book
investigates polyandry as it is practised among the Nyinba, a culturally Tibetan group
resident in northwestern Nepal.
It uses ethnographic data to explore polyandry's cultural
and social parameters and the multiple factors that enter into individuals' decisions to
remain in their polyandrous marriages, or, as rarely happens, to dissolve them. This leads
to a critique of arguments that find a determinant materialist logic in polyandry and seek
its causes in exogenous circumstances.
The Nyinba practise fraternal polyandry. Every man who
has brothers, with the rarest of exceptions, marries polyandryously, and virtually all the
brothers remain in intact, fraternally polyandrous marriages throughout their lives. The
linkage of brothers in marriage and their lifelong co-residence are associated with
special systems of property inheritance and succession to positions of household
authority. Lifelong fraternal unity produces households which are large and complex in
composition. The analysis encompasses a wide range of interactions in polyandrous
household system, the constraints of mountain agriculture, and regional economic and
labour systems; and, ultimately, between kinship, domestic economy, and population
dynamics. Nyinba men's and women's assessment of their own circumstances is discussed as
well as the interplay between individual decisions and socio-cultural processes. Polyandry
among the Nyinba affects interpersonal relationship in marriage and in family life.
Matriarchy, polyandry, and fertility amongst the
Mosuos in China
Nan E. Johnsona and Kai-Ti Zhanga, Department of Sociology, Michigan State University
Journal of Biosocial Science (1991), 23:499-505 Cambridge University Press
Copyright © 1991, Cambridge University Press
A survey of 232 households of the Mosuo minority group in Yunnan Province, People's
Republic of China, suggested that polyandrous matriarchy did not raise the birth rate per
household, but lowered the community birth rate by restricting many women's chances of
marrying. The results imply that tolerance by the national government of polyandry within
certain minority groups (e.g. Mosuos and Tibetans) will not prevent but may aid the
attainment of zero population growth by China in the twenty-first century.
Draupadis Husbands: A Brief Study of Polyandry in Contemporary Himalayan
Abstract: The Paharis of India and the nearby Tibetan Nepali are two of the few peoples
who practice fraternal polyandry, the marriage of multiple brothers to a single woman.
Practitioners and proponents of polyandry offer several reasons for the continuation of
this practice, including polyandrys enhancement of biological fitness in offspring,
the abundance of available marriageable men compared to women, polyandrys economic
benefits within the society, and the perpetuation of a polyandrous tradition established
in the Hindu epic the Mahabharata. However, further research demonstrates that each of
these reasons is actually inadequate and nocurrent explanation exists for polyandrys
continued practice among the Pahari and Tibetan Nepali.
Polyandry, the marriage of a woman to multiple husbands, is first recounted not in
historical texts, but in the Hindu epic the Mahabharata. In the Mahabharata, the princess
Draupadi is married to the five heroic Pandava brothers, and the Pahari of Himalayan India
have continued this practice of fraternal polyandry through the centuries. Paharis, or
mountain people, are a separate culture of India characterized by several diversions from
mainstream Hinduism, including the institution of polyandry, and a separate linguistic
dialect. Their centuries-old trading partners to the north, the Tibetan Nepali, also
practice polyandry, which is generally believed to have been introduced to them by the
Pahari (Berreman1962). The unique qualities of polyandry and its universal rarity have
encouraged continued anthropological investigation among both Paharis and Tibetan Nepali.
Several hypotheses have attempted to explain the continuation of polyandrous marriage,
including the enhancement of biological fitness, the demographic inequality between men
and women, economic benefits in the system of familial partition, and even a particular
spiritual devotion to the Mahabharata. However, despite the variety of hypotheses, no
conclusive evidence suggests that practice of polyandry is preferable to polygyny or
The enhancement of biological fitness:
Polyandry does not empirically increase the biological fitness of offspring within
amarriage. Although polyandrous marriages do ensure some variation of alleles within a
familial population, the probability of transferal of alleles from father to children
decreases with the number of husbands within a polyandrous marriage (Beall and Goldstein
In a polyandrous marriage of only two brothers, the opportunity of a husband to pass half
his genetic code to his children is already decreased by half. This, of course, assumes
that all husbands are provided with equal sexual access to the common wife, a cultural
ideal which is not universally maintained (Levine 1987).
Polyandrous marriages, however, produce the same amount of offspring as monogamous
marriages due to the universal gestation periods of women, and in fact have a higher
offspring mortality rate resulting in less surviving children (Beall and Goldstein 1981).
The decrease in the number of offspring further decreases
the chance of transferal of alleles to a further generation. Thus, polyandry does
not appear to enhance the fitness of individuals who practice it, and in fact, seems to
entail substantial reproductive sacrifice (Beall and Goldstein 1981:5).
The demographic inequality between men and women
A general theory presented for polyandry is the insurance of marriage for all eligible
individuals in societies where there is a surplus of men (Heath 1955, cited in Berreman
1962). In Jaunsar Bawar, a polyandrous Pahari community, there is an expectantly great
shortage of women. However, in nearby and monogamous Garhwal, there is a high surplus of
women (Berreman 1962), a trend which suggests that polyandry may be the cause and not the
solution to a shortage of available wives.
The economic benefits in a system of familial partition
By far the most convincing explanation of polyandry lies in the standard division of
familial property among both Pahari and Tibetan Nepali societies. Both societies practice
familial partition, in which land holdings and resources are divided more or less equally
among all legitimate sons, with smaller land holdings and resources also available to
illegitimate sons. In order to mitigate the partition of land, brothers are reunited under
one household by marriage to a common wife. The sons of their polyandrous union are also
expected to marry in polyandry, thus retaining the entirety of family land holdings
Indeed, the wealthiest of three Tibetan Nepali communities, Ladog, is also the one which
practices polyandry most consistently, where not only do more women marry brothers, but
also marry more brothers within the same family (Levine 1987). Ideal as polyandry may seem
to the system of partition, it is not the only form of marriage practiced in either the
Pahari region or in Tibetan Nepal.
Thus, the economic benefits of polyandry are often outweighed by the number of brothers
who partition land from the family in monogamous unions and the divisive effect of such
partitioning among brothers who choose polyandry.V. Hindu tradition. The Pahari people
also offer another reason for the continuation of fraternal polyandry: a particular
spiritual devotion to Draupadi and her husbands in the Mahabharata. The Mahabharata
maintains that the Pandavas traversed Pahari lands during their wanderings, and Paharis
claim that polyandry is conducted in traditional remembrance of these heroes (Berreman
1962). However, the Mahabharata is a poor source in which to find the virtues of
polyandry. Draupadi is the only woman of the epic involved with a polyandrous marriage;
her husbands are the sons of a polygynous union, and, in fact, each of her husbands
maintains at least one personal wife of his own. Paharis find sexual access between the
wives and brothers of monogamous marriages as acceptable and desirable as the legitimized
union of brothers in polyandry. (Berreman 1962). Thus, the emulation of the Pandavas
through polyandry is an insufficient explanation of its presence, since not all marriage
traits of the Pandavas are equally respected by the Pahari.
Thus, no solution provided by either the peoples who practice polyandry or varied
anthropological hypotheses on the subject succinctly and completely explains its continued
practice. Polyandry does not increase the biological fitness of offspring; in fact, it
decreases the likelihood of transferring desired traits and alleles. The surplus of men in
a polyandrous society may be the result of polyandrous marriages instead of the solution,
and many single women remain who are considered ineligible for marriage by other social
standards. In the system of partitioning, in which complete and continued practice of
polyandry is the most sensible means of retaining family land holdings, the total
participation of brothers in polyandrous marriages is rare and land holdings are still
often divided amongst families. Finally, the same epic text that provides the traditional
foundation for polyandry also provides the foundation for an inequality of marriages among
brothers and polygyny, neither of which are practiced to the same extent as polyandry in
either Tibetan Nepal or the Pahari region. Lack of substantial support for polyandry
demonstrates its anomaly among marriage institutions of the world and further studies
among other polyandrous cultures in India and Nepal are necessary to discover the benefits
of polyandry in a contemporary society.