Sociology Index


Racism is the most vexing common issue in humanity. Racism fails as means to well-defined ends. Racism occurs where past injustices have led to present inequalities between the races. Racism is an ideology based on the idea that humans can be separated into distinct racial groups and that these groups can be ranked on a hierarchy of intelligence, ability, morality and so on. Nazism is remembered for its ideology of racism. Racism is inherently irrational. Ethnocentrism may be combined with racism in the belief that individuals can also be classified into distinct racial groups. The racism arguments involve accusations concerning stereotyping.

Hundreds of thousands of predominantly black and Asian service personnel who died fighting for the British Empire have not been formally commemorated in the same way as their white comrades because of decisions underpinned by “pervasive racism”, an investigation has concluded. - The Guardian.

On the Moral Economy of Racism and Racist Rationalization in Sport - Jonathan A. Long, Leeds Metropolitan University, Mike J. McNamee, University of Wales Swansea. This article draws on and extends a series of empirical evidence studies into the nature and extent of racism in selected sports and philosophical explorations.

Lay Theories About White Racists: What Constitutes Racism (and What Doesn't) 
Samuel R. Sommers, Michael I. Norton. Psychological theories of racial bias assume a pervasive motivation to avoid appearing racist, but what are laypeople's theories about what constitutes racism. The authors develop a more complete understanding of the nature of race-related norms, motivations,replica watches and processes of social perception.

Media representations and identity work among “immigrant youth” in contemporary Sweden - Anna Bredstrom.

Resistance to Affirmative Action - Self-Interest or Racism? Cardell K. Jacobson. The new symbolic racism, and old-fashioned racism are examined as predictors of attitudes about affirmative action programs. These are all found to be related to attitudes about affirmative action programs and remain so when a variety of control variables are included in the regression analyses.

Influence of Perceived Neighborhood Diversity and Racism Experience on the Racial Socialization of Black Youth - J. Derek McNeil, Wheaton College, Howard C. Stevenson, Teresa Herrero-Taylor, Gwendolyn Y. Davis. This study examines protective and proactive racial socialization communications received from families. Boys are more likely than girls to receive coping with antagonism and cultural pride communications in high culturally diverse neighborhoods when they’ve had a personal experience with racism.

Discourse and the Denial of Racism - Teun A. van Dijk. After a conceptual analysis of denial strategies in interpersonal impression formation on the one hand, and within the social-political context of minority group and immigration management on the other, various types of denial are examined in everyday conversations, press reports and parliamentary debates.

Racism in the News: A Critical Discourse Analysis of News Reporting in Two Australian Newspapers - PETER TEO. The study probes ideological construction of racism imbricated within the structure of newspaper reporting.

Let's Kick Racism Out of Football — and the replica watches Lefties Too! 
Responses to Lee Bowyer on a West Ham Web Site. Andy Ruddock. Pleasure and politics coexist but do not meet in a West Ham supporting vernacular that has little to say about racism. This article examines how the empirical evidence study of football fans can inform contemporary debates in critical audience and audience studies, particularly around issues of pleasure and cultural citizenship. West Ham United signs Lee Bowyer; a controversial move, given the accusations of racism surrounding the player.

Storylines in Racialized Times: Racism and Anti-Racism in Toronto's Social Services - Donna Baines. Details the form and content of racism and anti-racism in social work agencies. The volume and quality of the data concerning race merited its own discussion particularly in light of the ongoing debates concerning how to move forward with an anti-racism project in this era of post-equity, neo-liberalism.

Sophistication and the Antecedents of Whites' Racial Policy Attitudes: Racism, Ideology, and Affirmative Action in America - CHRISTOPHER M. FEDERICO and JIM SIDANIUS. Abstract: Values include such things as notions of fair play and devotion to the principle of equality of opportunity.

The Denial of Racism - The Role of Humor, Personal Experience, and Self-Censorship 
Brendon Barnes, Ingrid Palmary, Kevin Durrheim. Study aimed to identify and explicate those rhetorical maneuvers that function to introduce the issue of race into conversations in the presence of an interracial couple and to negotiate "race talk" in their presence while distancing the speaker from inferences of racism.

One Beige Crayon - Rethinking the Social Construction of Racism 
Patricia Brieschke. This analysis reveals how educators talk about race and racism in the context of their personal and professional lives. Racism was constructed as an exclusively Black and White experience and social agenda in public education.

Institutionalized Racism: an Analytic Approach - Robert E. Klitgaard. Models are used to describe three kinds of racism: irrational racism, bigotry which hurts both parties; 'economically rational irrational racism', where a racist equilibrium exists in a community where no one is an irrational racist; and 'fully rational racism', where past injustices have led to present inequalities between the races.

Assessing the Stressful Effects of Racism: A Review of Instrumentation 
Shawn O. Utsey. This article reviewed six instruments developed to assess the psychological processes associated with the experience of racism among African Americans.

Facing inwards and outwards? Institutional racism, race equality and the role of Black and Asian professional associations - Coretta Phillips. Lawrence Inquiry and its assertion that ‘institutional racism’ was endemic in the British police service. Explores their internal supportive function in assisting members who have experienced various forms of occupational racism.

Crack Mothers in the News: A Narrative of Paternalistic Racism - Marian Meyers. The underlying paternalistic racism reflects the intersectionality of gender, race, and class while reinforcing negative stereotypes about African American women.

Modern Racism and Modern Discrimination 
The Effects of Race, Racial Attitudes, and Context on Simulated Hiring Decisions. John B. McConahay. Ambivalence concept was used to demonstrate the construct validity of a relatively nonreactive scale of racial prejudice, the Modern Racism Scale. Modern Racism Scale were unrelated to hiring evaluations.

"The Silent Catastrophe" - Institutional Racism in the British Educational System and the Underachievement of Black Boys - Mekada Graham, Fresno Gil Robinson. The continuing denial of race and racism in British educational policy is reflected in the intransigence of many schools to consider the differential positioning of Black boys in the wider society.

Conservative Implications of the Irrelevance of Racism in Contemporary African American Cinema - Earl Sheridan, University of North Carolina at Wilmington - It is ironic that since the 1990s, when more Black filmmakers than ever before have reached prominence in Hollywood, race and racism have virtually ceased to be major themes. Why has this occurred?

Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury - Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress - Robert T. Carter. The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of racism on people of Color.

A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health 
Yin Paradies. This paper reviews 138 empirical quantitative population-based studies of self-reported racism and health.

Psychological Aspects of Racism in Organizations 
Roderick J. Watts, DePaul University. Robert T. Carter, Teachers College, Columbia University, Group & Organization Management, Vol. 16, No. 3, 328-344. (1991). Three levels are defined: institutional racism, racial climate, and personal discrimination. The results, based on a sample of Blacks in a state bureaucracy, indicated that racial identity was the best predictor of perceptions of racial climate and personal discrimination.

The relationship of racism to appraisals and coping in a community sample - Brondolo E, Thompson S, Brady N, Appel R, Cassells A, Tobin JN, Sweeney M. Department of Psychology, St John's University, Jamaica, NY 11439, USA. Ethn Dis. 2005 Autumn;15(4 Suppl 5):S5-14-9. This study tests the hypothesis that lifetime exposure to racism influences individuals' appraisals of and coping responses to new episodes of maltreatment.

Covert Racism: An Application of Essed's Analysis in a South African Context 
J. Louw-Potgieter, Department of Industrial Psychology, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag XI 7, Bellville 7535, South Africa' Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 5, 307-319 (1989). Accounts of the experience of covert racism in the context of an 'open' university in South Africa were examined in terms of a method based on attributional principles.

Racism and Mental Health - Evelyn Barbee, RN, PhD, FAAN 
Department of Nursing, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences in Boston, Massachusetts. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, Vol. 8, No. 6, 194-199 (2002). Race and its associated concept, racism, have long been linked to social and health problems. Racism as a social construct is defined, and some of the literature on racism and mental health is reviewed.

Journal of Sport & Social Issues, Vol. 20, No. 1, 45-68 (1996) The "Let's Kick Racism out of Football" (LKROOF) campaign is the product of the London-based Commission for Racial Equality. The article argues for the need for campaigns such as LKROOF to recognize the specificity of racism in different social contexts. The author will investigate the question "Is this also the case for the issue of racism in Scottish soccer?"

Racism Stress Management - Racial Socialization Beliefs and the Experience of Depression and Anger in African American Youth - HOWARD C. STEVENSON, ANGELA BISHOP, University of Pennsylvania. JOCELYN REED, University of Maryland, PRESTON BODISON, Temple University. African American adolescents who respond to racial intolerance with anger and depression are silenced and vulnerable to misinterpretation and misdiagnosis. Gender differences were found.

‘Hottentots’ and the evolution of European racism - Nicholas Hudson, University of British Columbia. This essay develops a theory concerning the ideological history of ‘racism’, understood in its modern Western sense. Khoikhoi, popularly known as ‘Hottentots’, a peripheral and cooperative people, attracted this virulent hatred. Europeans needed to neutralize the ideological threat represented by the Khoikhoi.

Common Sense versus Political Discourse - Debating Racism and Multicultural Society in Dutch Talk Shows - Andra Leurdijk - European Journal of Communication, Vol. 12, No. 2, (1997). An analysis of Dutch audience discussion shows dealing with racism and a multicultural society. In what ways do audience discussion shows offer a forum for public debate on racism?

Channeling blackness, challenging racism: a theatrical response - Yeidy M. Rivero, Indiana University, USA - Global Media and Communication, Vol. 2, No. 3, (2006). The need to explore commercial television’s racial, ethnic, cultural, and gendered representations. You Don’t Look Like questions and the positionality of black citizens in the Puerto Rico’s island’s society, culture, and on television.

Anti-Muslim Racism and the European Security State 
Liz Fekete, Institute of Race Relations, IRR’s European Race Audit. Race & Class, Vol. 46, No. 1, 3-29 (2004). The ‘war on terror’ is having a major impact on race relations policies. New legislation, policing and counter-terrorist measures are casting Muslims as the ‘enemy within’. The parameters of xeno-racism have been extended to Muslim communities. This is not just Islamophobia but structured anti-Muslim racism.

Challenging racism strategies for the '80s 
A. Sivanandan, Institute of Race Relations. Race & Class, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1-11. 1983. Talk given on 12 March 1983 at the Greater London Council Ethnic Minorities Unit Consultation on Challenging Racism.

Convergence Between Racial and Political Identities - Boundary Erasure or Aversive Racism? 
GAIL E. COOVER, LINDA C. GODBOLD - Results are consistent with aversive racism and assertions about White viewers' preferences for accommodating representations of Blacks.

Racism and Rationality - The Need for a New Critique - David Theo Goldberg, Arizona State University, Tempe. Argument, logical and moral, offered for the general assumption that racism is inherently irrational.

Racism, Ethnicity and Criminology. Developing Minority Perspectives 
Coretta Phillips, London School of Economics and Political Science. Benjamin Bowling, King's College, London. In empirical and theoretical criminology references to racism and ethnicity are commonplace. This paper proposes the formulation of minority perspectives in criminology.

Unconscious Racism: Scrutinizing Judicial Reasoning in 'Stolen Generation' Cases 
Elena Marchetti, Janet Ransley, Griffith University, Australia. Charles Lawrence's cultural meaning test is used to critique the reasoning of the judges in Australian cases concerning the 'stolen generation' and the unconscious racism that still exists in the Australian liberal legal system.

Racism, Capitalism, and the Schools 
Understanding Demographic Data and Educational Change in Buffalo, New York (1930-1977). Charles Reitz, Buffalo, New York. The evidence supports the conclusion that racism in Buffalo has been sustained by social, political, and educational structures.

The racism scene and the multicultural project: Quebec as an example - Philippe Bataille 
Social Science Information, Vol. 37, No. 2, 381-399 (1998). In crisis-ridden social and cultural contexts, racism tends to be translated into action. This article is about possible institutional and political response to racism.

What kind of people are we? 'Race', anti-racism and social welfare research - M Boushel, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, 8 Prior Road, Bristol BS8 1TZ, UK. British Journal of Social Work (2000) 30, 71-89.

Avoiding the Issue - Racism and Administrative Responsibility in Public Administration 
Jennifer Alexander, Cleveland State University. Racism is an integral and often invisible component of the customary morality.

'Race' and Racism: An Attempt to Organize Difference 
Farhad N. Dalal, North East London Psychotherapy and Counselling Association. Addresses the issue of `race' and racism in the context of Group-analytic psychotherapy. There is no specific Group-analytic understanding of racism. The ways of viewing the phenomena of 'race' and racism as dynamic processes rather than as fixed and concrete events.

The Emergence of Racism in Group Analysis - Dick Blackwell 
Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture. In a racist society the dynamics of racism will be internalized by all its members. The emergence of racism in an analytic group reveals the importance of group composition.

Racism in Children's and Young People's Literature in the Western World 
Joerg Becker, Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktsforschung, Frankfurt.

Media, Racism and Public Health Psychology 
Raymond Nairn, University of Auckland, Frank Pega, Tim McCreanor, Massey University, Jenny Rankine, Words & Pictures Media Consultancy, Angela Barnes, Massey University, New Zealand. Literature has established that racism contributes to ill-health of migrants and indigenous peoples. Racism generally negates wellbeing.

Psychiatric Contributions to Understanding Racism 
Laurie Jo Moore, Auckland University School of Medicine, New Zealand. Theoretical contributions of psychiatrists to understanding racism. Racism is poorly understood because it is a tool of socio-economic oppression. The damaging effects of racism on physical and mental health are reviewed. Psychoanalytic perspectives argue that racism is not just a problem of certain people.