Sociology Index

Situational Crime Prevention

Situational Crime Prevention is premised on the belief that most crime is opportunistic rather than being the outcome of those driven to commit a crime no matter what. Situational crime prevention refers to crime prevention strategies that aim at reducing criminal opportunities in the lifestyle exposure and routine activity of everyday life. Situational Crime Prevention attempts to reduce the opportunities for crime rather than just relying on the police after the crime has occurred. This approach is also called effective guardianship. The general category of community crime prevention includes strategies such as developmental crime prevention, effective guardianship, or situational crime prevention.

Community crime prevention is a general category of prevention strategies which focus on the community itself. Situational crime prevention uses techniques focusing on reducing on the opportunity to commit a crime. In a design of using household victimization-survey to measure crime, it was demonstrated that crime decreased after the street lighting was improved. Barthe, Emmanuel (2006).

Situational crime prevention focuses on crime prevention rather than the punishment or detection of criminals and its intention is to make criminal activities less appealing to offenders.

Methods of situational crime prevention include hardening potential targets, improving natural surveillance, controlling access to property, and deflecting offenders from settings in which crime might occur.

Issues explored in this text is the extent to which situational crime prevention practices result in communicating to the public that crime is a normal risk of everyday life to be managed by the police. - Ethical and Social Perspectives on Situational Crime Prevention. Edited by Andrew von Hirsch, David Garland and Alison Wakefield - Oxfrod, U.K.

Evaluating Situational Crime Prevention Using a Young People's Survey - Part II Making Sense of the Elite Police Voice - Kate A. Painter, David P. Farrington, Institute of Criminology, Cambridge. It is argued that high quality evaluation designs, for example, comparing experimental and control areas and including before and after measure of crime, are needed to evaluate situational crime prevention initiatives. Situational crime prevention with improved street lighting is a striking example for the public.

Value for money? A review of the costs and benefits of situational crime prevention 
BC Welsh and DP Farrington, Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge. This paper reviews the costs and benefits of situational crime prevention. Thirteen situational crime prevention studies permitted the calculation of benefit to cost ratios. Current knowledge suggests that situational crime prevention can be an economically efficient strategy for the reduction of crime.

Reduction of Suicide in Jails and Lockups Through Situational Crime Prevention: Addressing the Needs of a Transient Population - Christine Tartaro - S.I. Newhouse Center for Law and Justice, Rutgers University.
The problem of jail suicide has been widely publicized in many articles and corrections reports, yet seldom is this work organized in a framework. The current paper organizes the existing literature on suicide in jails and lockups within Clarke's (1997) framework of situational crime prevention and Clarke and Lester's (1989) work on suicide prevention.

Serious Criminality at U.S. Colleges and Universities: An Application of the Situational Perspective - Don Hummer, University of Massachusetts-Lowell. Data were also collected on a number of variables indicative of the tenants of situational crime prevention, as well as data on serious offending from the sampled institutions. This research will help determine whether situational crime prevention initiatives derived from the situational perspective are successful in ameliorating serious offending in the campus environment.

The Politics and Practice of Situational Crime Prevention - Crime Prevention Studies, Volume 5. Ross Homel, editor, Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, New York, U.S.A. 1996.

Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. Clarke, Ronald V., ed. New York: Harrow and Henson, 1992.