Social capital is a term commonly used by political and academic elites. According to Coleman "The function identified by the concept of social capital is the value of aspects of social structure to actors as resources that they can use to achieve their interests." Putnam defines social capital as trust, norms and networks that facilitate cooperation for mutual benefit. According to Michael B. Spring, social capital is an analogous term to human capital, which was itself created by analogy to the term physical capital. The first formal use of social capital as a concept was laid out by the French Marxist sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in 1986.
For Pierre Bourdieu, social capital was the aggregate of the actual or potential resources which are linked to mutual acquaintance and recognition to membership in a group, which provides each of its members with the backing of the collectively-owned capital. Social network has always involved trade-off between inclusion and exclusivity. Social capital within a group is often built by excluding those outside that group. The benefits of social capital for some can also disadvantages of exclusion for others.
Social Capital as Credit - Social capital, or aggregate reputation, is a form of credit. Some formal transactions can be supported by social capital. Informal transactions are rarely underpinned by financial credit or legal agreement and instead rely entirely on social capital. We all have our internal calculators keeping tacit track of who is doing wrong and who is doing right, the health of the relationships and adjusting our actuarial tables according to experience.
"Capital can present itself in three fundamental guises: as economic capital, which is immediately convertible into money and may be institutionalised in the form of property rights; as cultural capital, which is convertible, on certain conditions, into economic capital and may be institutionalised in the form of educational qualifications; and as social capital, made up of social obligations (connections), which is convertible, in certain conditions, into economic capital and may be institutionalised in the form of a title of nobility." - Bourdieu.
Measuring social capital: Towards a theoretically informed measurement framework for researching social capital in family and community life. by Wendy Stone. Social Capital and Citizenship project, this paper contributes to the development of clear links between theorised and empirical understandings of social capital by: establishing a theoretically informed measurement framework for empirical investigation of social capital; and reviewing existing measures of social capital in light of this framework. Concludes with a statement of guiding principles for the measurement and empirical investigation of social capital in family and community life.
Community formation and social capital in Australia , Dimitria Giorgas.
This paper explores ethnic community formation and social capital among six groups: Germans, Dutch, Hungarians, Poles, Italians and Greeks.
It argues that social capital within the family is particularly important in overcoming deficiencies in other forms of capital; although it can only be successfully utilised when close relations exist between parents and children. Thus cultures that place greater emphasis on the family and are collectivist in nature, such as Greeks and Italians, are more likely to utilise social capital. In contrast cultures that have an individualistic focus, for example, Germans and Hungarians, are more likely to under-invest in social capital.
Social Capital: Reviewing the Concept and its Policy Implications
The conceptual literature on social capital; The empirical evidence on social capital; Social capital and policy analysis; Some policy ideas aimed at enhancing social capital.
Towards and theorised understanding of family life and social capital, Ian Winter. Families are typically thought of as the wellspring of civil society and an important source of social capital. The aim of this Working Paper is to bring the relationship between families and social capital under some scrutiny. The paper defines the concept of social capital and reviews the literature on social capital within and beyond family networks.
Social Capital: The missing link, Christian Grootaert. It has now become recognized that the "traditional" types of capital (natural, physical and human) determine only partially the process of economic growth because they overlook the way in which the economic actors interact and organize themselves to generate growth and development. The missing link is social capital.
Measuring social capital towards a theoretically informed measurement framework for researching social capital in family and community life, Wendy Stone. Provides a review of measurement tools and a theoretical framework for future social capital research.
Healthy Ties - Social Capital, Population Health and
Hyyppa, Markku T.
Cultural inequalities in social capital and health. Includes data on an exceptionally healthy community that is rich in social capital. Carefully examines effects of social capital on public health. Longitudinal data on social capital and health outcomes are carefully described and reviewed in this book. Social capital, population health and survival should inspire scholars, researchers, teachers and advanced students in social epidemiology and public health, and lead to new interventions in promoting health.
Gender And Social Capital by Brenda O'Neill, Elisabeth Gidengill, Elisabeth Gidengil.
Achieving Success Through Social Capital: Tapping Hidden Resources in Your Personal and Business Networks Wayne E. Baker.
Social Capital : A Theory of Social Structure and Action (Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences) by Nan Lin, Mark Granovetter.
Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society by Robert D. Putnam.
Social Capital Versus Social Theory: Political Economy and Social Science at the Turn of the Millenium by Ben Fine.
Conflict, Social Capital And Managing Natural Resources: A West African Case Study. Keith M. Moore.
In Good Company: How Social Capital Makes Organizations Work - Don Cohen, Laurence Prusak
Players in the Public Policy Process : Nonprofits as Social Capital and Agents by Herrington J. Bryce
Generating Social Capital: Civil Society and Institutions in Comparative Perspective by Dietlind Stolle, Marc Hooghe
The Creation And Destruction Of Social Capital: Entrepreneurship, Co-Operative Movements and Institutions by Gunnar Lind Haase Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard Svendsen
Social Capital by David Halpern - Social capital has become a buzzword among political and academic elites, though the term remains relatively unfamiliar to the general public
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Onyx, J. & Bullen, P. (1998), Measuring Social Capital in Five Communities in NSW: A Practitioners Guide, Management Alternatives Pty Ltd, Sydney.
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Stewart Weeks, M. & Richardson, C. (1998), Social Capital Stories, Centre for Independent Studies, Sydney.
Valenzuela, A. & Dornbusch, S. (1994), Familism and social capital in the academic achievement of Mexican origin and Anglo adolescents, Social Science Quarterly, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 18-36.
Woolcock, M. (1998), Social capital and economic development: toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework, Theory and Society, vol. 27, pp. 151-208.