Sociology Index And Dictionary
Aboriginal Peoples of Canada - Contrary to the belief of Europeans, that the "state of nature" can and should be improved through the labour of man, "Aboriginals view the natural world as perfect."
Aboriginal Culture and Tradition - The gift of Sweetgrass, Sweat lodge and the Ceremony, The Medicine Wheel and The Spiritual Circle. Everything an Aboriginal does is in a circle, and that is because the Power of the World always works in circles, and everything tries to be round. In the old days when aboriginal people were strong and happy, all their power came to their sacred hoop of the nation and so long as the hoop was unbroken the people flourished.
Accounting - Accounting is rationalizations that people provide for their actions: justifications and excuses. Accounting is the process by which people offer accounts in order to make sense of the world. In ethnomethodology the term accounting is used to refer to the practices of observation and reporting which make objects and events observable and objective.
Acculturation - Acculturation is the adoption of or adaptation to an alien culture. Acculturation is a process of cultural transformation initiated by contacts between different cultures. Acculturation takes place as societies experience the transforming impact of international cultural contact.
Acephalous Society - Acephalous literally means headless, that is, the society is without any formalized or institutionalized system of power and authority. Related to acephalous concept are monocephalous (one leader, as in a modern state) and polycephalous (many leaders).
Action Theory - Action theory is a sociological perspective that focuses on the individual as a subject and views social action as something purposively shaped by individuals within a context to which they have given meaning. This approach has its foundations in Max Weber's interpretive sociology which claims that it is necessary to know the subjective purpose and intent of the actor before an observer can understand the meaning of social action.
Activism - Activism is a policy of vigorous action both social and political. Modern youth are less involved in political and social activism. Activism is protest or dissent. Activism can have many political colors. Activism can bring about social change and political change.
Actus Reus - Actus reus is one of two components of a crime, the other being mens rea. Actus reus refers to the physical component of a crime, the act of committing the crime (physical act of taking something from someone's house). Mens rea, in contrast, is the mental component of crime, the existence of a criminal intent, and this requires the offender to have intended to carry out the physical act.
Affirmative Action - Affirmative action is positive steps that are taken to increase the representation of women and minorities in the areas historically excluded, like employment, education, and business. Affirmative action generates controversy where it involves selection on the basis of race, gender, and ethnicity.
Agency - Agency is linked to sociologies which focus on the individual as a subject and view social action as something purposively shaped by individuals within a context to which they have given meaning. This view is usually contrasted with those sociologies which focus on social structure and imply the individual is shaped and constrained by the structural environment in which they are located.
Aging and Gerontology - Aging is a universal phenomenon that adversely affects human beings. Gerontology is the branch of science that deals with old age, the ageing process, and the problems faced by old people in general and in society. The study of gerontology provides students with knowledge and critical understanding of the processes of aging and adult development.
Aging - Is a universal phenomenon that adversely affects human beings.
Agreement on TRIPS - TRIPS lays down the requirements that nations' laws must meet for: copyright rights, including the rights of performers, producers of sound recordings and broadcasting organizations; geographical indications, including appellations of origin; industrial designs; integrated circuit layout-designs; patents; monopolies for the developers of new plant varieties; trademarks; trade dress; and undisclosed or confidential information.
Alger Hiss - In 1948 a magazine editor, who confessed to being a communist, accused Hiss of assisting in the transmittal of documents to the Russians. Alger Hiss denied any involvement but was found guilty in his second trial and sentenced to five years in prison.
Alienation - Alienation is separation of individuals from control and direction of their social life. The term alienation was used widely in German philosophy in the 18th and 19th centuries, but it has become important for sociology through the ideas of Karl Marx (1818-1883).
Alterity - Alterity is a term central to postmodern discussions of identity in which the self is given meaning in terms of an other. This other is posed or imagined in terms of difference. Alterity then is a state of, or condition of, otherness. The term alterity is useful for thinking about how many peoples throughout history have been cast in the role of inferior and as the opposite of those who look down upon them.
Altruism - Altruism is social behaviour and value orientation in which individuals give primary consideration to the interests and welfare of other individuals, members of groups or the community as a whole. In altruistic regard for others is the principle of action.
Altruistic Suicide - The term 'altruism' was used by Emile Durkheim to describe a Suicide committed for the benefit of others or for the community: this would include self-sacrifice for military objectives in wartime. Altruistic suicides reflect a courageous indifference to the loss of one's life
Amazon - Amazons are members of a legendary nation of female warriors in Greek mythology. Many cultures have acknowledged a masculine role for women. The Kaska Indians performed a transformation ceremony to symbolically turn the daughter into a son. She dressed like males and engaged in hunting. The counterpart of this role among men is called berdache.
American Revolution - The American Revolution occurred during the last half of the 18th century when thirteen of Britain's colonies in North America overthrew the governance of the Parliament of Great Britain, and also later rejected the British monarchy to join as the sovereign United States of America.
Amplification of Deviance - Developed by Leslie Wilkens, the term 'Social Amplification of Deviance' is used more frequently in Britain. Deviance amplification refers to the unintended outcome of moral panics or social policies designed to prevent or reduce deviance. A media hype phenomenon, 'Amplification of Deviance' or 'deviancy amplification spiral' refers to an exagerated cycle of reporting on particular antisocial behavior.
Anarchism - Anarchism is political philosophy where society has no government, laws, or other authority. A free association of all its members. Anarchism considers government and hierarchical forms of social organization to be unnecessary and undesirable. Libertarianism was often used as a synonym for anarchism. Anarchism is anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism or participatory economics. Anarchism is therefore considered to be a radical left-wing ideology.
Androgyny - Androgyny is a personality which holds a balance of feminine and masculine characteristics. An androgynous person would be comfortable displaying both characteristics and able to move back and forth between the two. Some feminists have advocated gender androgyny as a source of liberation from polarized cultural ideas of masculine and feminine.
Anomia - Anomia is a social psychological condition, rather than a societal condition which anomie refers to, characterized by a breakdown in values and a feeling of isolation. Anomia describes the individual's lack of integration in social life. Anomia is more closely related to occupational aspiration than to occupational level
Anomic Division of Labour - There is anomic division of labour where the division of labour in the workplace is based on power and social and economic status, rather than on differentiations of individual ability or effort. In such circumstances, according to Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), the division of labour cannot command normative consensus and may become a source of anomie and breakdown of social solidarity.
Anomic Suicide - Durkheim linked anomic Suicide to disillusionment and disappointment. Durkheim (1858-1917) borrowed the word anomie from the french philosopher Jean-Marie Guyau and used it in his book Suicide (1897). In the concept of anomie individuals lack a sense of social regulation: people feel unguided in the choices they have to make.
Anthropology - Cultural - Cultural anthropology or Social anthropology is the science of human social and cultural behaviour and its development. Cultural anthropology is conceptually and theoretically similar to sociology.
Anthropology - Physical - Physical anthropology is the science of human zoology, evolution, and ecology. It is centred on the scientific study of the origins and development of human beings through analysis of fossil and skeletal remains.
Anti-Semitism - Anti-Semitism is a negative and hostile attitude to Jews and the Jewish religion. As a migrant people, the Jews have experienced anti-Semitism within many societies. The extreme expression of anti-Semitism was the Holocaust, when six million Jews were murdered in German concentration camps during World War II.
Anticombines Law - In order to protect the principle of competition, valued by all liberal, capitalistic societies, laws or anti-combines laws have been created to prevent and punish the undermining of free markets by corporate combination. When corporates get together and eliminate competition, there is protection against this in the anti-combines law in Canada and also in the U.S.A.
Antisocial Personality Disorder - Antisocial personality disorder (ASP) is a personality disorder that involves disregard for the rights of others, as well as impulsive, irresponsible and aggressive behaviour. Antisocial personality disorder is connected to many of society's ills, including crime, domestic violence, drug and alcohol abuse, and even rape and murder.
Apartheid - racial segregation - Apartheid is a policy of racial segregation maintained in South Africa from 1948 to 1991. The policy established the doctrine of separate development and South African blacks were segregated into reserves known as homelands. Apartheid was maintained by laws that included the prohibition of inter-racial sexual intercourse or marriage and outlawed racially integrated political and social organizations.
Apartheid Legislation South Africa - Nationalist
Government in South Africa enacted laws to define and enforce segregation.
Archaeology - Archaeology is one of the main fields of anthropology since it offers the only method for studying lost and forgotten cultures. Archaeological study can uncover information about the beliefs, social structure, economic organization and environmental effects of past societies.
Architectural Sociology - Architectural sociology is the study of how designed physical environment influences and is also influenced by society and human behavior. Sociological theories that focus on cultural patterns, social relationships, and social psychology are especially used to explain and interpret architectural design.
Aristocracy - Aristocracy is government of a State run by its elite citizens. Government of a State by those who are most distinguished by birth and wealth; oligarchy; a State so governed. A ruling body of nobles, an oligarchy. Origins of the word aristocracy imply the meaning of "rule by the best."
Ascription - Ascription is assigning some quality or character to a person or thing. Ascription in a sense is also the assigning to a cause or source. The principle of merit is consistent with liberal theory and assumes equality of opportunity and occupational advancement based on achievement rather than ascription. Meritocracy is rule by those chosen on the principle of merit.
Assimilation - Assimilation occurs where an ethnic group loses distinctiveness and becomes absorbed into a majority culture. An example of the choice of social identity is the phenomenon of assimilation, by which members of a minority group choose to adopt the social behavior of the dominant group - Lazear
Assumption of Discriminating Traits - The view that offenders are distinguished from non-offenders by, for example, their high levels of impulsivity and aggression. There is actually an assumption of discriminating traits.
Assumption of Offender Deficit - There is an assumption of offender deficit (psychological) when there is an offence committed by a citizen. It is assumed that offenders against the law have some psychological deficit that distinguishes them from normal law abiding citizens.
Astrosociology - The main purpose of the Astrosociology Research Institute (ARI) is to develop astrosociology as an academic field. A concentration on astrosocial phenomena (i.e., social and cultural phenomena) ties theoreticians, researchers, and scholars together, as does a focus on the human dimension of space exploration in general terms.
Astroturfing - Astroturfing is advocacy, often in support of a political or corporate agenda appearing as a "grassroots" movement. Astroturfing may be orchestrated by political consultants who specialize in opposition research. Astroturfing may be by an individual promoting a personal agenda, or highly organized professional groups.
Atavism - Atavism is a tendency to reproduce ancestral type in plants and in animals; to resemble one's grandparents or great-grandparents more than parents. In popular speech, a throw back. Atavism is the tendency of animals or plants to revert to an ancestral type. Resemblance to more remote ancestors rather than to parents.
Atheism - Atheism is as old as religion. During the 5,000 years of history when men developed a higher culture Atheism appeared. We see Atheism so widespread in civilization 2,500 years ago that it takes a prominent place in history in the form of the Ionian philosophy of Greece and the ethic of Buddha and Confucius in Asia.
Audience - Audience refers to a group of individuals attending to a common media. They receive communication from the same source, but are not active participants and do not communicate with each other. In sociology, the terms 'audience' and 'audience studies' is used to draw attention to the way that media corporations develop audiences of readers, listeners and viewers with the business objective of selling access to this audience to advertisers.
Audience Studies - The field of scholarship including market-oriented research where audience is studied is commonly designated as Audience Studies, aimed at the observation and analysis of individuals and their behavior with regard to his/her or their intake of a particular culture product(s) presented in a medium or media.
Authority - Authority is the capacity of an individual or institution to secure compliance from others based on the possession of a recognized right to legitimately claim obedience. Authority is obeyed because the individual or institution issuing commands is believed to have the right to do so.
Authoritarianism - Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by the authority of the state in a republic or union. A political system controlled by nonelected rulers. Authoritarian political systems depends on performance or demands of the people and it is a challenge to authoritarianism to adapt to changes or to accommodate growing demands on the part of the populace or even groups within the system. Authoritarianism is marked by indefinite political tenure. Totalitarianism is considered to be an extreme version of authoritarianism.
Autocracy - Autocracy is the concentration of power and authority in the hands of one person. Usually, autocracy refers to a situation where state power is controlled by a monarch, religious leader or political dictator. The term 'autocracy' can also be applied to particular social institutions where one individual has dominant power and authority.
Automation - Automation is methods of production that rely on mechanical or electronic technologies as a replacement for human labor. Automatic systems have gained in autonomy and authority, whereby the activity of the systems has become less dependent on operator interventions. Human-centered automation problems have multiple attributes: an attribute reflecting human goals and capabilities, and an attribute reflecting automation goals and capabilities.
Sociology Index And Dictionary