Sociology Index


Typification is perceiving the world and structuring it by means of types and typology. Typification is depicted as an essential and intrinsic aspect of the basic orientation of actors to their situations. In the process of typification we form a construct of a typical way of acting, assume typical underlying motivations or personality. Typification is a process of creating standard social construction based on standard assumptions. Discrimination based on such typification is called typism. Ethnomethodology deals with the use of the process of typification as a tool for understanding how people like coroners, prosecutors, and police officers achieve a sense of concreteness and predictability in their work. Coroners for example, may operate with a sense of a typical suicide.

Alfred Schutz who was a major influence in the development of phenomenological sociology suggests that in all of our encounters with others, with the exception of the most intimate of relationships, we experience and understand the other in terms of ideal types or typification. For example, we make prior assumptions about the personalities and behavior of a doctor, priest or judge. Much of the non-logical element in our argument taps the reservoir of unconscious understandings, feelings, expectations, and values that we have coded and stored in our unconscious minds in the form of stereotypes, schemas, and typifications.

Typification, Typology, and Sociological Theories - John C. McKinney, Social Forces.
Abstract: Typification is important for structuring the self, conceptualizing roles, and as a necessary feature of institutionalization and the development of social structure. In typification, two basic orders of types are distinguished: the existential type, developed by participants in social systems, and the constructed type, formulated by the social scientist for purposes of explicating those social systems. An exploration of selected theoretical and methodological issues is conducted with respect to the construction and utilization of typology, emphasizing problems of nominalism versus realism, ethnomethodology, social morphology.

Typification in Society and Social Science: The Continuing Relevance of Schutz's Social Phenomenology
Kwang-ki Kim & Tim Berard. Human Studies volume 32, Article number: 263 (2009).

Abstract: This paper examines Alfred Schutz’s insights on types and typification. Beginning with a brief overview of the history and meaning of typification in interpretive sociology, the paper further addresses both the ubiquity and the necessity of typification in social life and scientific method.

Schutz's contribution itself is lacking in empirical evidence, but examples are provided of ongoing empirical research which advances the understanding of types and typification. As is suggested by studies of social identity associated with membership categorization analysis, and constructionist social problems theory, typification can be found to be central to social research whether it is taken up as a largely unacknowledged resource or whether it is addressed by different names. The overview and illustrations suggest the continuing, widespread, and indeed foundational relevance of Schutz's insights into types and typification.

Punitive Attitudes and the Racial Typification of Crime - Kelly Welch,Best Replica Watches Florida State University. Abstract: The public has often perceived that crime is a problem largely attributable to blacks. The idea for this research originated from the fact that many have conjectured a relationship between public punitiveness and the racial typification of crime. No one had yet produced empirical evidence for this claim. Overall, this research shows how the relationship between the racial typification of crime and punitiveness both augments and possibly expands aspects of the social threat and social control relationship postulated by Blalock (1967), Liska (1992), and others.

The return of the “Battered husband Syndrome” through the typification of women as violent
Martin D. Schwartz, Ohio University, Walter S. DeKeseredy, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton University. Abstract The process of the social construction of woman abuse includes the essential idea of typification: that how we typify abused women can be a part of justifying help, or it can provide the scientific justification for a male discourse which legitimates abuse and buffers batterers from guilt.

The Racial and Ethnic Typification of Crime and the Criminal Typification of Race and Ethnicity in Local Television News - Ted Chiricos, Sarah Eschholz. Local news programming from three television stations in Orlando, Florida was analyzed for racial and ethnic content in relation to crime. Hispanics face overrepresentation in relation to their numbers in the population. Qualitatively, Blacks and especially Hispanics who appear as crime suspects do so in more threatening contexts than Whites. Blacks are more likely to appear as criminal suspects than as victims or positive role models, but this pattern is especially amplified for Hispanics. These results suggest typification and that local TV news may contribute to the social construction of threat in relation to Blacks and Hispanics.

Racial Typification of Crime and Support for Punitive Measures
Kelly Welch,Omega Replica Watches Ted Chiricos, Marc Gertz - Criminology, ISSN: 0011-1384 Volume: 42.
Abstract: This paper assesses whether support for harsh punitive policies toward crime is related to the racial typification of crime for a national random sample of households (N=885), surveyed in 2002. Results from OLS regression analysis show that the racial typification of crime is a significant predictor of punitiveness, independent of the influence of racial prejudice, conservatism, crime salience, southern residence and other factors.

The Portrayal of Gays and Lesbians on TV, and How Viewers React, Matthew Wood. The visualisation of homosexuals has, to a great extent, led to negative stereotypical portrayals on television. It is often impractical to portray a character's sexuality through narrative and, therefore, programmes rely on typification. The importance of gay typification is that it makes people visible to the viewer and keeps the homosexuality of a character present throughout the text. There are clearly both advantages and disadvantages to this form of typification. In typing certain characters we reduce everything about that character to sexuality. Typification compacts an abundance of social knowledge into a limited number of distinct signs, but is likely that many homosexuals never relate to the various gay types portrayed on television, and most gays and lesbians remain invisible for most, if not all their lives. Whilst typification leads to negative, stereotypical views of homosexuality, it is important to note that in many cases such types are used by homosexuals themselves.

Phenomenology and Typification: A Study in the Philosophy of Alfred Schutz - NATANSON, Maurice.  - Social Research, v. 37, 1970.