Typification is typical social
construction based on standard assumptions. Alfred Schutz
developed phenomenological sociology.
He suggests that in our encounters with others we experience and understand the other in
terms of ideal types or typification. We make prior assumptions about the personalities
and behavior of a doctor, priest or judge.
In the process of typification
we form a construct of a typical way of acting, assume typical underlying motivations or
personality. Ethnomethodology deals with the use of the
process of typification as a tool for understanding how people like coroners, prosecutors,
police officers and others achieve a sense of concreteness and predictability in their
work. Coroners for example, may operate with a sense of a typical suicide.
Typification, Typology, and Sociological
Theories - John C. McKinney, Social Forces, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Sep.,
Abstract: Typification is perceiving the world and structuring it by means of types and typology. Typification is depicted as an essential and intrinsic
aspect of the basic orientation of actors to their situations. Typification is important
for structuring the "self," conceptualizing "roles,"
and as a necessary feature of institutionalization and the development of social structure.
In typification, two types are
distinguished: the existential type, developed by participants in social systems, and the
constructed type, formulated by the social scientist. All typification is viewed as
consisting in the pragmatic reduction and equalization of attributes. An exploration of
issues of methodology is conducted with respect to the
construction and utilization of typologies.
The Racial and Ethnic
Typification of Crime and the Criminal Typification of Race and
Ethnicity in Local Television News - Ted Chiricos, Sarah Eschholz
Results suggest that local TV news may contribute to the social construction of threat in
relation to Blacks and Hispanics.
The return of the Battered husband Syndrome through the typification
of women as violent
Martin D. Schwartz, Ohio University, Walter S. DeKeseredy, Carleton University.
The process of the social construction of woman abuse includes the essential idea of
Punitive Attitudes and
the Racial Typification of Crime - Kelly Welch, Florida State University.
Many have conjectured a relationship between public punitiveness and the racial
typification of crime. No one had yet produced empirical
evidence for this claim. Whether viewing television crime news increase the likelihood
of typification of blacks as criminals. The presence of an indirect relationship between
media consumption and punitive attitudes through the racial typification of crime.
Watching more local television news increases the black typification of crime for
minorities. That media consumption is not indirectly associated with punitive attitudes
through the racial typification of crime. This research shows how the relationship between
the racial typification of crime and punitiveness, and possibly expands aspects of the
social threat and social control.
Racial Typification of
Crime and Support for Punitive Measures
Kelly Welch, Ted Chiricos, Marc Gertz.
Whether support for harsh punitive policies toward crime is related to the racial
typification of crime for a national random sample of households. Results from OLS regression analysis show that the racial typification
of crime is a significant predictor of punitiveness.
The Portrayal of Gays
and Lesbians on TV, and How Viewers React, Matthew Wood
It is impractical to portray a character's sexuality through narrative and, therefore,
programmes rely on typification. There are clearly both advantages and disadvantages to
this form of typification. Typification compacts an abundance of social knowledge into a
limited number of distinct signs. Whilst typification leads to negative, stereotypical
views of homosexuality, it is important to note that in many cases such types are used by
Typification: A Study in the Philosophy of Alfred Schutz - NATANSON,
Maurice. - Social Research, v. 37, 1970, pp. 1-22.