Sociology Index

TYPOLOGY

Typology is the branch of knowledge that deals with classes with common characteristics. Typology is classification, especially of human behavior or characteristics according to type. A set of two or more ideal types used for categorizing behaviors, events, societies, and groups. Typology is the study of types and the systematic classification of the types according to their common characteristics.

Sociopolitical typology refers to four types of a political organization: band, tribe, chiefdom, and state, created by the anthropologist Elman Service. Linguistic typology or language typology, classifies languages according to their structural and functional features. Its aim is to describe and explain the common properties and the structural diversity of the world's languages. - Bickel, B.

What is typology? Qualitative typology deals with the issue of comparing languages and within-language variance; quantitative typology deals with the distribution of structural patterns in languages; theoretical typology explains these distributions; syntactic typology, deals with word order, word form, word grammar and word choice; and lexical typology, deals with language vocabulary. A classic example of typology is that of David Emile Durkheim who developed four types of suicide: anomic suicide, egoistic suicide, altruistic suicide and fatalistic suicide. Ferdinand Tonnies identified two types of society: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.

Commentary on Typology of Religious Characteristics of Social Service and Educational Organizations and Programs - F. Ellen Netting. In this commentary about Sider and Unruh's typology, four questions are raised: When religion is visibly expressed, is it the expression of religion? When organizations move within the continuum, do they move in multiple and even counterintuitive directions? How do beneficiaries benefit? How does the “faith factor” figure into macro programs? It is concluded that it is in both what the typology is designed to do and not designed to do that informs future research.

A Factor Analytic Test of Houle's Typology of Professionals' Modes of Learning 
Ronald M. Cervero, University of Georgia, Athens, GA., Katherine H. Dimmock, University of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN. - Houle has proposed a typology of professionals' modes of continuing learning. Three modes are hypothesized: inquiry, instruction, and performance. The purpose of the study was to test the adequacy of this typology with a population of staff nurses in a community hospital. A 47-item instrument that has been shown to be a valid and reliable measure of the universe of nurses' continuing learning activities was used. The four factors were labelled Inquiry, Performance, Group Instruction, and Self-instruction. A revised typology is proposed and an explanatory framework for the new typology is given.

TYPOLOGY — AN ARCHITECTURE OF LIMITS
Doug Kelbaugh.
Abstract: This paper is about the virtue of limits in architecture. Open-ended, heroic Modernism gave way in the 1970s to a sense offinitude in both architectural form and space, as well as natural resources. Modernist functionalism had been more concerned with utility and internal consistency than relating to urban context. Typology, eschewed by Modernists in their blanket rejection of precedent and history, has the power to restore historical continuity and spatial hierarchy to the ciy. The problems of obligatory invention and chronic originality are discussed, as well as the roles of background and foreground buildings. Typology is defended as a language of urban design that can provide coherence and shared meaning in the built environment.